Deacon, H. J.. Where hunters gathered: a study of Holocene Stone Age people in the Eastern Cape

Table of Contents

Publication Information

Introduction

The Aims And Outline Of Research

Introduction

The Holocene Period

The Late Upper Pleistocene And Holocene Culturehistory Of The Eastern Cape

Research Design

General Geographical And Environmental Setting Of The Archaeological Study In The Eastern Cape

Environmental Zonation

1. The Coastal Strip

2. The Coastal Plain

3. The Cape Folded Mountain Belt

4. The Karoo - Cape Midlands

Present And Past Environments: A Perspective

Archaeological Observations At Melkhoutboom Cave

Introduction

Stratigraphy Of The Deposits

1. Basal Unit (b)

2. Rock Fall Unit (rf).

3. Medium Brown Series Unit (mbs)

4. Wilton Base Marker Unit (wbm)

5. Marker Unit (m)

6. Wedge Unit (w)

7. Main Bedding Unit (mb)

8. Cut Away Frontal Unit (caf)

9. Overlie Of The Main Bedding Unit (omb)

10. Surface Unit (s)

Dating And Correlation

The 1967 – 1969 Excavation

Features

1. Hearths And Ash Bodies

2. Pits And Depressions

3. Post-holes

4. Burial Shafts

Artefacts From Melkhoutboom Cave

The Nature Of The Artefact Finds

The Non-lithic Artefacts

(i) Leather

(ii) Cordage, Netting And Matting

(iii) Reeds

(iv) Wooden Artefacts

(v) Bone Artefacts

(vi) Shell

(viii) Pottery

General Description Of The Stone Artefacts

(i) Ochre

(ii) Shale Pieces

(iii) Slabs

(iv) Micaceous Sandstone

(v) Chunks

(vi) Chips

(vii) Cores

(viii) Core Reduced Pieces

(ix) Pièces Esquillées

(x) Unmodified Flakes

(xi) Retouched Flakes

(xii) Scrapers

(xiii) Segments

(xiv) Backed Bladelets

(xv) Borers

(xvi) Adzes

(xvii) Anvils

(xviii) Hammerstones

(xix) Rubbers

(xx) Milled Edge Pebbles

(xxi) Miscellaneous And Broken Pieces

Metrical Study Of The Hafted Stone Artefacts

(i) Metrical Study Of The Scraper Class

(ii) Metrical Study Of The Segment Class

(iii) Metrical Study Of The Backed Bladelet Class

(iv) Metrical Study Of The Adze Class

(v) Metrical Study Of The Borer Class

The Pre-wilton Industries

Summary Conclusions Drawn From The Artefact Study

Food Refuse From Gathering And Hunting: Diet And Subsistence

Plant Remains

Animal Remains

Summary Conclusions Based On Observations At Melkhoutboom Cave

Archaeological Observations At Highlands Rock Shelter

Introduction

Stratigraphy Of The Highlands Deposits

Dating Of The Highlands Deposits

The 1969–1970 Excavation

Features In The Upper Member Of The Highlands Sequence

Artefacts From Highlands Rock Shelter

The Non-lithic Artefacts

General Description Of The Stone Artefacts

Metrical Studies Of The Hafted Stone Artefacts

General Discussion Of The Artefacts From Highlands

Food Refuse From Gathering And Hunting: Diet And Subsistence

Plant Remains

Animal Remains

Diet And Subsistence

Summary Conclusions On Archaeological Observations At Highlands Rock Shelter

Observations At Other Relevant Archaeological Occurrences

Scotts Cave

Tsitsikama National Park And Skrik River

Cranemere And Cradock

Springs Rock Shelter

Towards A Prehistory Of The Holocene In The Eastern Cape

Publication Information

Paragraph Subjects (OCM)

Publication Information

Author:

Title: Where hunters gathered: a study of Holocene Stone Age people in the Eastern Cape

Published By: Claremont, South Africa: South African Archaeological Society, 1976. xiii, 232 p.: ill.

By line: by H.J. Deacon

HRAF Publication Information: New Haven, Conn.: HRAF, 2004. Computer File

Culture: Wilton (FX50)

Subjects: Theoretical orientation in research and its results (121); Organization and analysis of results of research (128); Fauna (136); Flora (137); Lithic industries (324); General tools (412); Cultural stratigraphy (912);

Abstract: Deacon presents his findings and analyses from two sites from two different ecological zones: Melkhoutboom Cave in the Cape Folded Mountain Belt and Highlands Rock Shelter in the Karoo-Cape Midlands. Both sites have dates that extend beyond the time period and in this report Deacon only discusses the data from the Holocene deposits from these sites. Both sites had good preservation. Melkhoutboom Cave, in particular, had excellent preservation of plant materials in the Holocene strata. This allowed Deacon to discuss uses of plants and seasonality. Stone tools are also discussed in detail. Also found at these sites are bone tools, shell and /or shell artifacts, faunal remains, cordage and netting fragments, and remains of leather. Deacon also briefly discusses six other sites in the eastern Cape. The Wilton strata date from approximately 7500 B.P. to the present at Melkhoutboom Cave and from 4500 B.P. to the present at Highlands Rock Shelter. Only the material that pertains to the non- or pre-ceramic Wilton were indexed for OCM (Outline of Cultural Materials) subjects.

Document Number: 1

Document ID: fx50-001

Document Type: Monograph

Language: English

Field Date: 1963, 1967-1971

Evaluation: Archaeologist-4, 5

Analyst: Sarah Berry ; 2002

Coverage Date: 7500 B.P.- 2000 B.P.

Coverage Place: Melkhoutboom Cave; South Africa and Highlands Rock Shelter; South Africa

LCSH: South Africa--Antiquities

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