Walker, Nicholas John. Late Pleistocene and Holocene hunter-gatherers of the Matopos: an archaeological study of change and continuity in Zimbabwe

Table of Contents

Publication Information

1. Introduction

2. Previous Research

Pioneer Years

Early Descriptive Years

Later Descriptive Years

Recent Years

3. The Environment

Physical Environment

The Landscape

Rock Shelters

Climate

Present Climate

Past Climates

Biological Environment

Vegetation

Vegetation Type

Plant Communities

Vegetation Resilience And Change

Plant Foods

Plant Studies

Fauna

Faunal Type

Recent Changes

Animal Foods

Predators

Competitors For Plant Foods

Animal Studies

4. The Utilisation Of Rock Shelters

The Site Survey

Site Types

Size

Intensity Of Use

Results

Site Exploitation

Site Location

Site Spacing

Conclusion

Rock Art

5. The Excavated Sequences

Excavation Strategy

Nswatugi Cave

Research

Stratigraphy

A. The Recent Layer

B. The Ash Layer

C. The Orange-brown Soil

D. The Cave Earth

Features

Dating

The Artefacts

Stone Artefacts

Bone And Shell Artefacts

Other Artefacts

Plant Remains

Animal Remains

Summary History Of Nswatugi Cave

The Cave Of Bees

Research

Stratigraphy

Features

Dating

The Artefacts

Stone Artefacts

Bone And Shell Artefacts

Other Artefacts

Plant Remains

Animal Remains

Summary History Of The Cave Of Bees

Pomongwe Cave

Research

Stratigraphy

Trench Iv (tu)

Trench V (myz)

Features

Dating

The Artefacts

Stone Artefacts

Organic Artefacts

Other Artefacts

Plant Remains

Animal Remains

Summary History Of Pomongwe Cave

Bambata Cave

Research

Stratigraphy

Trench N

Trench Qr

Features

Dating

The Artefacts

Stone Artefacts

Bone And Shell Artefacts

Other Artefacts

Plant Remains

Animal Remains

Summary History Of Bambata Cave

Other Sites

Kalanyoni Shelter

Stratigraphy

Dating And Features

The Artefacts

Animal Remains

Summary History Of Kalanyoni Shelter

Maleme Dam Shelter Iv

Stratigraphy

Dating And Features

The Artefacts

Animal Remains

Summary History Of Maleme Dam Iv

Site Cb68

Stratigraphy

Artefacts

Animal Remains

Summary History Of Site Cb68

Other Excavations

Lazi Shelter

Gumali Cave

World's View Shelter

Ntunje Cave

Amadzimba Cave

6. Industrial Evolution

Results

Late Middle Stone Age

Maleme

Pomongwe

Nswatugi

Amadzimba

Ceramic Matopan

Artefact Expectations In Subsistence And Adaptation

Exchange

Regional And Local Variations And Continuities

Aggregation Versus Dispersal Sites

7. Subsistence Strategies

Untitled Section: ...

The Approach

Expectations

Excavation Results

Discussion

Fauna

Plants

Conclusion

8. Spatial And Temporal Organisation Of Settlement And Demographic Change

Home Organisation

Transhumance

Site Hierarchies

Changing Land Rationalisation

Population Dynamics

Estimating Population According To Site Size And Spacing: A Predictive Model

Estimating Population According To Site-occupation Intensity: Testing The Model

Implications

9. Conclusion

Reasons For Change

Terminal Pleistocene

Pleistocene/holocene Boundary

Early Holocene

Early-mid Holocene

Mid Holocene

Mid-late Holocene

Late Holocene

An Evaluation Of Adaptation

Some Closing Remarks

Publication Information

Paragraph Subjects (OCM)

Publication Information

Author:

Title: Late Pleistocene and Holocene hunter-gatherers of the Matopos: an archaeological study of change and continuity in Zimbabwe

Published By: Uppsala: Societas Archaeologica Upsaliensis, 1995. 284 p.: ill.

By line: by Nicholas John Walker

HRAF Publication Information: New Haven, Conn.: HRAF, 2004. Computer File

Culture: Wilton (FX50)

Subjects: Fauna (136); Flora (137); Bone, horn, and shell technology (321); Lithic industries (324); General tools (412); Visual arts (5311);

Abstract: Walker reports on his archaeological findings from the region known as the Matopos in western Zimbabwe. The archaeology encompasses the time period from 15,000 B.P. to 1500 B.P. Only the material that pertains to the Wilton period (10,000 B.P. to 2000 B.P.) was indexed for OCM (Outline of Cultural Materials) subjects. Eight sites were excavated and six others had their assemblages re-examined. The main orientation at the start of the field work was to allow Walker to examine the relationship between proposed carrying capacity and expected resource use in the Matopos. This was compared with the actual archaeological findings. Key findings include food resources were based on gathering marula (rather than a wide range of plants) and on hunting a wide range of small animals, at least during the mid Holocene. Group size and population also changed with changes in hunting strategies. Walker believes some of the changes in backed tools (arrows) and beads may indicate a symbolic way to communicate group differences or group boundaries and a way to reinforce social or ritual messages. The archaeological changes that occurred in the Matopos are compared with some of the changes that occurred throughout southern Africa.

Document Number: 5

Document ID: fx50-005

Document Type: Monograph

Language: English

Field Date: 1975-1982

Evaluation: Archaeologist-4, 5

Analyst: Sarah Berry ; 2002

Coverage Date: 10,000 B.P.- 2000 B.P.

Coverage Place: the Matopos; Zimbabwe

LCSH: South Africa--Antiquities

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