Marks, Anthony E.. The Khormusan: an Upper Pleistocene industry in Sudanese Nubia

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Title: The Khormusan: an Upper Pleistocene industry in Sudanese Nubia

Published in: The prehistory of Nubia; [final report] Papers assembled and edited by Fred Wendorf

Published By: The prehistory of Nubia; [final report] Papers assembled and edited by Fred Wendorf [Taos, N.M.]: Fort Burgwin Research Center; [distributed by] Southern Methodist University Press [Dallas], 1968. 315-391 p.: ill., maps

By line: Anthony E. Marks

HRAF Publication Information: New Haven, Conn.: HRAF, 2004. Computer File

Culture: Middle Paleolithic Egypt (MR45)

Subjects: Identification (101); Organization and analysis of results of research (128); Topography and geology (133); Lithic industries (324); General tools (412); Cultural stratigraphy (912); Typologies and classifications (914);

Abstract: Marks describes and defines the Khormusan industry. The industry was first recognized with the excavation of sites 1017 and ANW-3 in 1965. Only five sites represent the Khormusan industry. (Marks dates the industry from approximately 32,000 to 16,000 B.P., while Fred Wendorf, who wrote the cultural summary for Middle Paleolithic Egypt in the Encyclopedia of Prehistory dates site 1017 from 65,000 B.P. to 40,000 B.P. The Khormusan now appears to be considered a Middle Paleolithic industry and not an Upper Paleolithic one as stated by Marks.) In this report Marks describes the major traits of the Khormusan, describes each site individually, illustrates selected stone artifacts, and compares the Khormusan to contemporary adjacent cultures. Marks believes these people hunted and fished along the Nile and, due to the numerous burins found at the sites, made reed and wood tools, perhaps even reed and wood traps for fishing. All five sites had ground hematite. Surprisingly, two bone tools were found at site ANW-3. They may be the earliest bone tools in Nubia.

Document Number: 5

Document ID: mr45-005

Document Type: Essay

Language: English

Field Date: 1961-1965

Evaluation: Archaeologist-4, 5

Analyst: Sarah Berry ; 2002

Coverage Date: Khormusan; 27,000 B.P. -16,000 B.P. (but probably 65,000 B.P.-40,000 B.P.)

Coverage Place: Nile Valley; northern Sudan

LCSH: Paleolithic period--Egypt

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