McGhee, Robert. The Palaeoeskimo occupations at Port Refuge, High Arctic Canada

Table of Contents

Publication Information

I. Introduction

The High Arctic

Port Refuge And Penny's North Water

The Port Refuge Project

Ii. Independence I Occupations At Port Refuge

The Independence I Culture

Cold Component

Feature Descriptions

Feature 1

Feature 2

Feature 3

Feature 4

Feature 5

Feature 6

Feature 7

Feature 8

Feature 9

Feature 10

Feature (?) 11

Feature 12

Feature 13

Feature 14

Feature 15

Feature 16

Feature 17

Feature 18

Feature 19

Feature 20

Feature 21

Feature 22

Features 23

Feature 24

Feature 25

Feature 26

Feature 27

Feature 28

Feature 29

Feature 30

Feature 31

Faunal Remains

Artifact Descriptions

Microblades

Microblade Core

Burins

Burin Spalls

Small Stemmed Bifaces

Large Stemmed Bifaces

Endblades

Sideblade

Ovate Bifaces

Knives

Large Bifaces

Biface Fragments

Concave Sidescrapers

Flakeknives

Endscrapers

Graver

Adze Blade

Retouched Flakes

Waste Flakes

Needles

Harpoon Heads

Barbed Antler Point

Other Worked Bone, Antler And Ivory

Artifact Distributions

Distributions Between Features: Dwellings, Camps, Work Areas?

In-feature Distributions: Men's And Women's Areas?

Upper Beaches Component

Feature Descriptions

Feature 1

Features 2–5

Feature 6

Features 7–11

Feature 12

Feature 13

Features 14–15

Feature 16

Features 17, 18, 19, 22

Features 20, 21

Features 23, 24

Features 25, 26

Faunal Remains

Artifact Descriptions

Microblades

Microblade Cores

Burins

Burin Spalls

Small Stemmed Bifaces

Large Stemmed Bifaces

Endblades

Sideblades

Ovate Biface

Knives

Large Bifaces

Biface Fragments

Concave Sidescrapers

Flakeknives

Endscrapers

Graver

Adze Blade

Retouched Flakes

Waste Flakes

Needles

Harpoon Heads

Harpoon Socket Piece?

Worked Bone

Artifact Distributions

Cape Hornby Component

Artifact Descriptions

Microblades

Burins

Burin Spalls

Small Stemmed Biface

Large Stemmed Bifaces

Endblades

Sideblade

Large Bifaces

Biface Fragments

Endscrapers

Retouched Flake

Waste Flakes

Worked Bone

Lake Component

Artifact Descriptions

Microblades

Burins

Burin Spalls

Small Stemmed Biface

Large Stemmed Biface

Endblade

Sideblade

Ovate Bifaces

Knives

Biface Fragments

Concave Sidescrapers

Flakeknife

Endscraper

Drill

Retouched Flakes

Waste Flakes

Worked Bone

Whale Component

Artifact Descriptions

Microblades

Microblade Core

Burin Spalls

Biface Fragments

Concave Sidescrapers

Flakeknife

Endscraper

Waste Flakes

Needle

Other Independence I Localities

Iii. The Pre-dorset Occupation Of Port Refuge

Gull Cliff Component

Feature Descriptions

Faunal Remains

Artifact Descriptions

Microblades

Microblade Cores

Burins

Burin Spalls

Stemmed Bifaces

Small Triangular Bifaces

Sideblades

Knives

Large Bifaces

Concave Sidescrapers

Flakeknives

Endscrapers

Drills (?)

Retouched Flakes

Waste Flakes

Needles

Harpoon Heads

Barbed Antler Points

Other Worked Bone, Antler And Ivory

Artifact Distributions

Other Pre-dorset Components

Iv. Individuals, Assemblages And Components

Individuals

Assemblages

Functional Analysis

Comparative Analysis

Components

V. Port Refuge In The Astt World

Geographical Position

Temporal Position

Cultural Position

Vi. Questions Without Answers

Vii. A Questionable Answer

The First Hunters

Publication Information

Paragraph Subjects (OCM)

Publication Information

Author:

Title: The Palaeoeskimo occupations at Port Refuge, High Arctic Canada

Published By: Ottawa: National Museums of Canada, 1979. vii, 176 p.: ill.

By line: Robert McGhee

HRAF Publication Information: New Haven, Conn.: HRAF, 2000. Computer File

Culture: Eastern Arctic Small Tool (N050)

Subjects: Identification (101); Historical reconstruction (174); Bone, horn, and shell technology (321); Lithic industries (324); Dwellings (342); Settlement patterns (361); Weapons (411); General tools (412); Archaeological inventories (915);

Abstract: This is a study of several archaeological sites at Port Refuge, a small bay on the south coast of Grinnell Peninsula, Devon Island in Nunavut of Canada. The author's archaeological fieldwork, which took place between 1972-1977, uncovered several prehistoric occupational sites in the area which have been ascribed to the Independence I, Pre-Dorset, Independence II/early Dorset, late Dorset, and Thule cultures. The present report describes the archaeological material relating to the early Arctic Small Tool tradition occupations -- the Independence I and Pre-Dorset cultural phases. “Five components are ascribed to an Independece I variant, and one to a Pre-Dorset variant of the ASTt [Arctic Small Tool tradition]. The Independence I components comprise between 13 and 31 discrete features, most of which appear to have been single family tent dwellings of the midpassage form; faunal analysis suggest that these dwellings were occupied for periods of time ranging from a few days to a few weeks, by people who were engaged primarily in hunting ringed seals, waterfowl and fox. The single Pre-Dorset component appears to represent a more lengthy occupaiton, but the faunal remains suggest an economic orientation similar to that of the Independence I people. A brief attempt is made to understand the relationships between the Port Refuge people and Arctic Small Tool tradition people in other Arctic areas, and to explain the nature of the earliest occupation of the Port Refuge area” (p. iii).

Document Number: 2

Document ID: n050-002

Document Type: Monograph

Language: English with summary in French

Note: Summary in French. Includes bibliographical references (p. 133-135)

Field Date: 1972-1977

Evaluation: Archaeologist-5

Analyst: John Beierle ; 1998

Coverage Date: 4000 B.P. - 2200 B.P.

Coverage Place: Port Refuge, Grinnell Peninsula, Devon Island, Nunavut, Canada

LCSH: Arctic regions--Antiquities

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