Allchin, Bridget. Origins of a civilization: the prehistory and early archaeology of South Asia

Table of Contents

Publication Information

Chapter 1 : The Rediscovery Of The Past

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Why Should We Try To Rediscover The Past?

Differing Cultural Traditions .

Environment .

History And Prehistory .

Approaches .

Archaeology And Conservation Of The Cultural Heritage .

Chapter 2 : The South Asian Setting

South Asia In Relation To Asia And The World

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Structure .

Climate .

Climatic Change .

Internal Diversity Within Overall Unity: Different Environments, Different Cultures

South Asian Environments

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The Arid North-west .

The Indus System .

North And East India. The Ganges-brahmaputra System .

Central And Peninsular India And Sri Lanka .

Environment And Change

Chapter 3 : Roots: Ancestors Of Mankind And The Beginning Of Culture

Ancestors Of Mankind

The World Picture

Africa .

Asia And Europe .

South Asia .

The Beginning Of Culture

The Significance Of Stone Artefacts

The Pre-hand-axe Tradition .

The Hand-axe Tradition .

Chronology And Dating

Surface Sites

Chapter 4 : The Long Climb: The Middle And Upper Palaeolithic

The Middle Palaeolithic

A New Tradition: The Nevasan In Peninsular India

Sri Lankan And South Indian Shore-dwellers: Quartz .

North India: Changing Environments .

Western India: The Thar, An Environment For Hunters .

Budha Pushkar .

The Luni Industry .

The Potwar Plateau .

The Rohri Hills Of Upper Sindh .

The Upper Palaeolithic

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Responses To New Demands .

Blade-making: Lighter More Versatile Tools .

Innovation And Continuity: The New Beside The Old .

Northern Punjab: A Palaeolithic Work Place .

Caves In The Northwest Frontier And Afghanistan .

Sindh: The Hilltop Factory Sites .

Budha Pushkar, A Lake In The Thar Desert.

The Central Ganges Valley And The Vindhyas .

Vindhya Caves And Rock Shelters

Quartz For Choice: South India And Sri Lanka .

Rock Art

Chapter 5 : Pathways To Settled Life: The Mesolithic And Early Neolithic

The Mesolithic

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Cultural Change In The Central Ganges Valley And Vindhyas .

The Neolithic

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The Central Gangetic And Vindhyan Region .

The Archaeological Past And The Ethnographic Present

The South Indian Neolithic

The Holocene In The North-west

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The Thar Inhabited Once More .

Kashmir .

The Northwestern Borderlands .

The Indus Plains .

The Indus Neolithic: The Kachi Plain .

Conclusion .

Chapter 6 : The Indus World: The Context Of The First South Asian Towns And Cities

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Early River Valley Civilizations .

Indus Agriculture .

The Indus Environment .

Regions

The Lower Indus Valley .

The Punjab And Northern Rajasthan .

Northern Gujarat, Saurashtra And The Makran Coast .

Chapter 7 : Farmers And Village Communities Of The Indus System

The Beginnings Of Agriculture At Mehrgarh (c. 7000–4500 Bc)

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The Chronology Of Mehrgarh .

The Early Periods .

Domestication Of Plants And Animals .

The Period Of Agricultural Expansion (c. 4500–3500 Bc)

Early Harappan Incipient Urbanism (3500–2600 Bc)

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Extent.

Sindh Province .

North-western Province .

Punjab Province .

Eastern Province .

Rajasthan .

Southern Province, Saurashtra And Gujarat .

The Character Of Early Harappan Incipient Urbanism

Settlements And Structures .

Agriculture And Subsistence .

Crafts And Technology .

Trade And Communications .

Chapter 8 : The Indus Empire—sites And Structure

A Civilization In The Making

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Extent .

Sindh Province .

Punjab And North-western Province .

Eastern Province .

Central And Southern Rajasthan .

Southern Province, Saurashtra And Gujarat .

Conclusion—the Harappan Heartland .

Cities And Sites

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Architecture And Monumental Types .

Special Purpose Sites And Areas .

Agriculture And Other Subsistence Strategies

Crafts, Industries, Factories And Workshops

Trade And Transport

Means Of Transport .

The Evidence Of Trade .

Trade Within The Indus Domain .

Trade With Neighbouring Regions Or Chiefdoms .

Indus Trade With Mesopotamia .

Chapter 9 : The Indus Empire—people And Culture

Peoples Of The Harappan Domain

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The Harappan Language Or Languages .

Social Complexity .

A State Or Not A State?

Writing

Science And Technology

Harappan Art

Seals .

Harappan Religion And Tradition

Materials For Study .

The Place Of The Indus Civilization

In The Ancient World .

In Relation To The Rest Of South Asia .

Chapter 10 : Changing Scenes: Indus To Ganges

The End Of The Indus Civilization

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Sindh .

Cholistan .

North-western (punjab) Province .

Saurashtra And Gujarat .

The Post-urban Period In The Sarasvati-drishadvati Valleys

Protohistoric Archaeology And Tradition

Chapter 11 : The Second Urbanization

The Colonization Of The Ganges Valley

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Environment Of The Ganges Plains .

Archaeological Sequence

The Spread Of Iron Working .

The Iron Age And The Period Of The Painted Grey Ware .

Settlement Patterns In The Doab

Archaeology And Late Vedic Tradition

The Rise Of Cities And States

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Culture Sequence And Chronology .

The Emergence Of Cities

Factors Favouring The Development Of Urbanization .

The Early City And The State

The Expansion Of Urbanization In South Asia

Mechanisms For The Spread Of City-formation

States And Tribes .

Colonization And Janapada Nivesa .

Imperial Expansion .

Trade .

The Spread Of Religion .

Urbanization Beyond The Ganges Plains

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The North-west .

The Central Indian Belt .

Cities In The Deccan .

The West And East Coastal Strips .

The Southern Peninsula .

‘as Far As Tamraparni’ .

Conclusion

The Flowering Of Early Historic Civilization

Publication Information

Paragraph Subjects (OCM)

Publication Information The main body of the Publication Information page contains all the metadata that HRAF holds for that document.

Author: Author's name as listed in Library of Congress records

Title: Origins of a civilization: the prehistory and early archaeology of South Asia

Published By: Original publisher New Delhi: Viking. 1997. xxii, 287 p. ill., maps

By line: Author's name as appearing in the actual publication Bridget and Raymond Allchin

HRAF Publication Information: New Haven, Conn.: Human Relations Area Files, 2016. Computer File

Culture: Culture name from the Outline of World Cultures (OWC) with the alphanumberic OWC identifier in parenthesis. Mature Indus (AQ45)

Subjects: Document-level OCM identifiers given by the anthropology subject indexers at HRAF Identification (101); Culture summary (105); Location (131); Climate (132); Topography and geology (133); Acculturation and culture contact (177); Tillage (241); Production and supply (433); Internal trade (438); External trade (439); Inter-ethnic relations (629); Cities (633);

Abstract: Brief abstract written by HRAF anthropologists who have done the subject indexing for the document This document is an overview of the prehistory of the Indian subcontinent from the Lower Paleolithic to the Early Historic period at about 1900 BP; although only portions pertaining to the Mature Indus are relevant to this collection, it will prove useful to readers with a general interest in the Indus Neolithic through Vedic traditions. The authors, long active in research in the subcontinent, specifically mention fieldwork in 1963 in caves in Afghanistan, in 1972 at Budha Pushkar, and in 1975 in the Rohri Hills. The focus is on data from archaeological studies, including information on the natural environment, agriculture and economy, and about the multiethnic and probably poly-linguistic cities of the Mature Indus tradition. [Analyst note: There are frequent typos in the electronic text, such as "m" in place of "th."]

Document Number: HRAF's in-house numbering system derived from the processing order of documents 11

Document ID: HRAF's unique document identifier. The first part is the OWC identifier and the second part is the document number in three digits. aq45-011

Document Type: May include journal articles, essays, collections of essays, monographs or chapters/parts of monographs. Monograph

Language: Language that the document is written in English

Note: Includes bibliographical references (p. 263-275) and index

Field Date: The date the researcher conducted the fieldwork or archival research that produced the document 1963, 1972, 1975

Evaluation: In this alphanumeric code, the first part designates the type of person writing the document, e.g. Ethnographer, Missionary, Archaeologist, Folklorist, Linguist, Indigene, and so on. The second part is a ranking done by HRAF anthropologists based on the strength of the source material on a scale of 1 to 5, as follows: 1 - poor; 2 - fair; 3 - good, useful data, but not uniformly excellent; 4 - excellent secondary data; 5 - excellent primary data Archaeologists-4, 5

Analyst: The HRAF anthropologist who subject indexed the document and prepared other materials for the eHRAF culture/tradition collection. Sarah Berry; 2015

Coverage Date: The date or dates that the information in the document pertains to (often not the same as the field date). 9000-1900 BP

Coverage Place: Location of the research culture or tradition (often a smaller unit such as a band, community, or archaeological site) India and Pakistan

LCSH: Library of Congress Subject Headings Indus civilization//South Asia--Civilization

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