Andrews, E. Wyllys (Edward Wyllys), 1916-1971. Excavations at Dzibilchaltun, Yucatan, Mexico

Table of Contents

Publication Information

1 Introduction

The Natural Setting

The Problem Of Environmental Change

Middle American Research Institute Archaeological Investigations On The Yucatan Peninsula, 1955–77

The National Geographic Society—tulane University Program Of Research At Dzibilchaltun

Early Investigations

The 1956–57 Season

The 1957–58 Season

The 1958–59 Season

The 1959–60 Season

The 1960–61 Season

The 1961–62 Season

The 1962–63 Season

The 1963–64 Season

The 1964–65 And 1965–66 Seasons

Research In 1967 And 1968

The National Geographic Society—tulane University Program Of Research In Campeche, 1968–71

Analysis And Publication

The Archaeological Zone Of Dzibilchaltun

The Central Plaza

Other Major Complexes At The Center Of Dzibilchaltun

Raised Causeways And The East And West Terrace Groups

Formative Period Architectural Remains

Architectural Types And Groupings

The Size And Population Of Dzibilchaltun

The Identification Of Dzibilchaltun In Ethnohistorical And Early Historical Accounts

2 The Excavations

Introduction

The Mirador Group

Structure 605 (formative Period)

Period 1 (nabanche 1) Figs. 21a, 22a, 23

Period 2 (nabanche 2) Figs. 21b, 22b, 23

Period 3 (nabanche 2 And Komchen) Figs. 21c, 22c, 23

Period 4 (xculul) Figs. 21d, 22d, 23

Period 5 (chechem) Figs. 21d, 23

Burials 1–11

Caches 1–7

Radiocarbon Dates

The Komchen Group

Structure 450 (formative Period)

Period 1 (nabanche) Figs. 30, 37, 38

Period 2 (early Komchen) Figs. 31, 37, 38

Period 3 (late Komchen And Xculul 1) Figs. 36–38

Period 4 (xculul 1 Or 2) Figs. 38, 41

Period 5 (xculul 2) Figs. 27, 41

Masonry

Burials 1, 2

Caches 1–5

Radiocarbon Date

Structure 500 (formative Period)

The Xculul Group

Structure 226 ( J 400 M 080) (formative Period)

Period 1 (xculul 1)

Period 2 (xculul 1 Or 2)

Period 3 (platform 1) (xculul 2)

Period 4 (platform 2) (xculul 2)

Period 5 (xculul 2)

Period 6 (xculul 2)

Period 7 (xculul 2)

Period 8 (late Xculul 2 Or Early Piim)

Burials 1–6

Caches 1–4

Radiocarbon Date

Structure 225 ( J 350 M 125) (formative Period)

Structure 612 (early Period I And Ii)

Period 1 (late Piim) Figs. 64, 65, 76

Period 2 (early Copo 1) Figs. 64, 75, 76

Period 3 (copo 1) Figs. 64, 76

Period 4 (copo 1 Or Early Copo 2) Figs. 64, 76

Period 5 (chechem) Figs. 64, 76, 79

Burials 1–3

Caches 1–4

Radiocarbon Date

The Seven Dolls Group (early Period Ii)

The Terrace Of The Seven Dolls

Structures 1 And 1-sub (the Temple Of The Seven Dolls) ( J 515 P 580)

Structure 1-sub

The Platform

The Temple

Cache 1 (m-177-g) Fig. 104

Radiocarbon Dates

Graffiti

Structure 1

Cache 2 (m-187-a-d) Fig. 121

Structures 1 And 1-sub In The Decadent Period

Remodeling Of The West Stairway

The Inner Chamber Of Structure 1-sub As A Decadent Period Shrine

Analysis Of The Decadent Period Painted Medallions In The Temple Of The Seven Dolls, By J. Eric S. Thompson

Decadent Period Caches (3–6)

Reconstruction Of Str. 1-sub

Floors

Walls

Substructure Retaining Walls

Doorway Lintels

The Stucco Facade

Vaults

The Roof

The Tower

The Temple Of The Seven Dolls: Dating And Architectural Comparisons

Structures 2 Through 12 (early Period Ii)

Introduction

Structure 2 ( J 513 P 626) Figs. 139, 139

Structure 3 ( J 476 P 587) Figs. 140, 141

Cache 1 (m-252-a)

Structure 4 ( J 490 P 528) Fig. 142

Structure 5 (j 491 P 532) Figs. 142, 143

Cache 1 (m-235-a) Fig. 145

Cache 2 (m-235-b) Fig. 145

Structure 6 ( J 514 P 528) Fig. 146

Burial 1 (m-237-b)

Cache 1 (m-237-a) Fig. 147

Structure 7 ( J 514 P 533) Figs. 143, 146

Cache 1 (m-239-b) Fig. 148

Cache 2 (m-239-a)

Structure 8 ( J 535 P 528) Fig. 149

Structure 9 ( J 534 P 533) (fig. 149), And Caches 1–5

Cache 1 (m-245-a) Figs. 147, 150

Cache 2 (m-245-b)

Cache 3 (m-245-c) Fig. 147

Cache 4 (m-245-d) Fig. 147

Cache 5 (m-245-e) Fig. 147

Structure 10 ( J 553 P 532) Figs. 151, 152

Structure 11 ( J 570 P 500) Fig. 153

Structure 12 ( J 526 P 445) Figs. 154, 155

Burial 1

Construction And Occupation Sequence In The Seven Dolls Group

The Seven Dolls Group: Architectural Comparisons

Structures 13, 14 And 15 (early Period Ii)

Structure 13, Burial 1 (m-213-a) Fig. 161

Structure 14, Burial 1 (m-204-c) Fig. 162

The Structure 38 Complex (early Period Ii And Pure Florescent Period)

Structure 38-sub ( J 538 O 862) (early Period Ii)

Substructure

Superstructure

Dating And Architectural Comparisons

Structure 38 (pure Florescent Period)

Dating And Architectural Comparisons

Structures 38 And 38-sub In The Decadent Period

Burials 1–8

Caches 1–4

Reconstruction Of Structures 38 And 38-sub

The Northeast Corner Of The Central Plaza: Structures 33, 36, 36a, 39 And 50 (early Period Ii To Decadent Period)

Structure 36 ( J 518 O 923) (pure Florescent Period)

Structure 36a (modified Florescent)

Late Additions To The Structure 36 Stairway

Structure 33 ( J 509 O 885) And Cache 1 (early Period Ii)

Cache 1 (m-458-a) Fig. 192

Structure 39 ( J 507 O 905) (late Modified Florescent)

Interior Constructions

Decadent Period Additions To The Structure 39 Platform

Consolidation

Structure 50 ( J 510 O 892) (decadent Or Colonial Period)

Stelae On The North Side Of The Central Plaza: Evidence For Destruction And Resetting

Structure 57 ( J 540 O 515) (early Period Ii)

Architecture And Masonry

Excavations, Secondary Constructions, And Occupation Sequence

North Room

East Room

West Room

South Room

Decadent Period Structure At The Southeast Corner

Burials 1–6

Caches 1, 2

Dating And Architectural Comparisons

Post-conquest Glazed Pottery From Structure 57

Platform West Of Structure 57 ( J 476 O 535)

Early Period Ii—pure Florescent “transitional” Vaulted Buildings

Structure 701 ( J 501 P 993)

Structure 810 ( J 445 P 963) Fig. 210

Structure 2631 ( I 452 O 755) Fig. 211

Structure 2641 ( I 540 O 676)

Structure 3047 ( J 200 O 805)

Structure 6029 ( K 930 L 363)

Structure 6808 ( K 876 L 380)

Structure J 336 O 643

Structure J 366 O 649

Structure J 377 O 617

Structure J 177 O 953

Structure J 198 O 949

Structure J 216 O 390

Structure I 898 N 938

Structure 722 ( J 542 P 745)

Discussion

Structures 95, 95a, And 96 (pure Florescent Period)

Structure 96 ( J 273 O 715)

Substructure

The Early Terrace Floor

Superstructure

Secondary Walls

Facade Decoration

Burials 1–9

Caches 1,2

Discussion Of Burials And Caches

Dating And Occupation Sequence

Structure 95 ( J 268 O 738)

Burials 1–3

Structure 95a ( J 266 O 727)

Structures 95 And 95a: Secondary Constructions, Occupation Sequence, And Dating

Late Stela Platforms And Shrines

Structures 47, 48 And 49

Structure 48 (j425o973)

Structure 49 (j389o972)

Structures 60 And 61

Structure 60 (j512o337) And Cache 1

Structure 61 ( J 490 O 337)

Miscellaneous Investigations

Structure 55 (the Palace) ( J 380 O 680)

Structure 3558 ( I 216 N 230)

Cenote Xlacah

The Survey And Test-pitting Program: Burials And Caches

Structure 18 ( J 409 K 397) And Cache 1

Structure 30 ( J 617 P 401) And Burial 1

Structure 160 ( I 445 P 253) And Cache 1

Structure 175 ( J 150 P 188) And Cache 1

Cache 1 (m-1566-a)

Structure 359 ( J 055 L 643) And Burial 1

Structure 701 ( J 501 P 993) And Burial 1

Structure 717 ( J 613 P 773) And Burial 1, Cache 1

Structure 722 ( J 542 P 745) And Burial 1

Structure 731 ( J 696 P 856) And Burial 1

Structure 737 ( J 602 P 886) And Burial 1

Structure 742 ( J 532 P 960) And Cache 1

Structure 777 ( J 785 P 930) And Caches 1, 2; Burial 1

Structure 782 ( J 747 P 955) And Burial 1

Structure 784 ( J 802 Q 247) And Burial 1

Structure 790 ( J 733 P 941) And Burial 1

Structure 810 ( J 445 P 963) And Burials 1–3

Structure 825 ( J 017 P 551) And Burial 1

Structure 1003 ( I 072 Q 913) And Burial 1

Structure 1005 ( I 091 Q 893) And Burials 1, 2

Structure 1009 ( I 142 R 030) And Cache 1

Structure 1185 ( J 177 Q 454) And Cache 1

Structure 2000 ( J 213 N 789) And Burial 1

Structure 2002 ( J 180 N 475) And Cache 1

Structure 2006 ( J 881 N 667) And Burial 1

Structure 2009 ( J 760 O 415) And Burial 1

Structure 2014 ( K 030 O 499)

Structure 2020 ( J 325 N 955) And Burial 1

Structure 3000 ( J 842 O 160) And Burial 1

Structure 3003 ( I 135 R 146) And Burial 1

Structure 3022 ( K 720 O 492) And Burial 1

Structure 3023 ( K 701 O 500) And Burial 1

Structure 3107 ( I 222 M 479) And Burial 1

Structure 3110 ( I 399 O 592) And Burial 1

Structure 3536 ( I 953 L 693) And Burial 1

Structure 3554 ( I 326 N 062) And Cache 1

Structure 3558 ( I 216 N 230) And Burial 1

Structure 3615 ( J 181 O 730) And Burial 1

Structure 3616 ( K 500 M 675) And Cache 1

Structure 3622 ( I 876 O 176) And Cache 1

Structure 3707 ( J 799 K 935) And Burial 1

Structure 3715 ( K 707 N 068) And Burial 1

Structure 3717 ( K 761 M 910) And Burial 1

Structure 3721 ( K 737 M 645) And Burial 1

Structure 6807 ( K 891 L 403) And Cache 1

Structure 6844 ( I 506 P 312) And Burial 1

Structure 6862 (i914 P 209) And Burial 1

Structure 6870 ( I 283 P 171) And Burial 1

Structure 6938 ( K 592 P 795) And Burial 1

Structure 6965 ( K 635 P 479) And Burials 1, 2

Structure 6969 ( K 643 P 450)

Vaulted Tombs (burials 1–5) Figs. 254, 255

Offerings At The Base Of The Stairway

Burials And Offerings In The Vaulted Chambers

Cache 1 (m-1893-b)

Structure 8000 ( J 025 O 717) And Burial 1

3 Dating The Dzibilchaltun Archaeological Sequence

Background

Nomenclature

Absolute Dating Of Dzibilchaltun Periods And Ceramic Complexes

The Formative Period

The Early Period

The Florescent Period

The Decadent Period

The Correlation Of Maya And Christian Calendars

Radiocarbon Determinations

4 Architecture

Middle Formative Period (nabanche Phase, Ca. 800–275 B.c.)

Nabanche 1 Phase (ca. 800–450 B.c.)

Nabanche 2 Phase (ca. 450–275 B.c.)

Late Formative Period (komchen And Xculul Phases, 275 B.c.-a.d. 250)

Komchen Phase (ca. 275–50 B.c.)

Xculul Phase (ca. 50 B.c.—a.d. 250)

Early Period I (piim Phase, Ca. A.d. 250–600)

Early Period Ii And Pure Florescent Period (copo Phase, Ca. A.d. 600–1000).

Internal Subdivisions And Architectural Assemblages

An Interpretation Of Ruin Clusters At Dzibilchaltun

Orientation

Materials And Tools

Masonry

Substructures

Superstructures

Types Of Buildings: Plans And Functions

Platforms

Unvaulted Structures

Vaulted Structures

Specialized Structures

Substructures

Building Platforms

Stairways

Floors

Superstructures

Walls

Doorways

Wall Sections And Piers

Wall Openings

Wall Depressions

Altars And Benches

Vaults, Roofs, And Roof Structures

Moldings

Exterior Decoration

Interior Decoration

Raised Causeways

Cenotes And Wells

Modified Florescent Period (zipche Phase, Ca. A.d. 1000–1200)

Decadent Period (chechem Phase, Ca. A.d. 1200–1540)

5 Burials And Caches

Burials

Nabanche Phase

Komchen Phase

Xculul Phase

Piim Phase

Copo Phase

Zipche Phase

Chechem Phase

Discussion

Caches

Nabanche Phase

Komchen Phase

Xculul Phase

Piim Phase

Copo Phase

Chechem Phase

Post-columbian Caches

Publication Information

Paragraph Subjects (OCM)

Publication Information

Author:

Title: Excavations at Dzibilchaltun, Yucatan, Mexico

Published By: New Orleans: Middle American Research Institute, Tulane University, 1980 xxi, 339 p., plates: ill.

By line: E. Wyllys Andrews IV and E. Wyllys Andrews V ; with an appendix on vertebrate faunal remains by Elizabeth S. Wing and David Steadman ; [Jennifer S. H. Brown, editor]

HRAF Publication Information: New Haven, Conn.: HRAF, 2000. Computer File

Culture: Classic Maya (NY53)

Subjects: Archaeological excavation methods (1210); Dating methods in archaeology (1211); Masonry (333); Structures (340); Religious and educational structures (346); Miscellaneous structures (349); Building interiors and arrangement (353); Burial practices and funerals (764); Chronologies and culture sequences (911);

Abstract: This is a detailed study of the archaeological zone of Dzibilchaltun located between Merida and the Gulf of Mexico in the Mexican state of Yucatan (21 degrees 5 minutes 45 seconds north latitude by 89 degrees 36 minutes 0 seconds west longitude). The site had been occupied for approximately 2000 years by a Mayan population with an extended chronology dating from the Formative Period (ca. 1200 B.P.-1750 B.P.) to the beginning of the colonial era (ca. 459 B.P.). Only the Classic Mayan Period from 1750 B.P. to 1000 B.P. has been indexed for 'Outline of Cultural Materials' (OCM) categories. A major portion of this work deals with the excavations at Dzibilchaltun, particularly with the Early Periods I & II and Terminal Classic phases of the Classic Mayan Period. Detailed descriptions of the various structures representing these phases are given, supplemented with data on archaeological dating techniques, styles of architecture, burials, and caches.

Document Number: 6

Document ID: ny53-006

Document Type: Monograph

Language: English

Note: Includes bibliographical references (p. 332-339)

Field Date: 1955-1977

Evaluation: Archaeologist-4,5

Analyst: John Beierle ; 1999

Coverage Date: 1750 B.P.-1000 B.P. (250 A.D.-1000 A.D.)

Coverage Place: Dzibilchaltun site; Yucatan, Mexico

LCSH: Mayas--Antiquities

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