Anderson, Patricia C.. Harvesting of wild cereals during the Natufian as seen from experimental cultivation and harvest of wild Einkorn wheat and microwear analysis of stone tools

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Publication Information

Harvesting Of Wild Cereals During The Natufian As Seen From Experimental Cultivation And Harvest Of Wild Einkorn Wheat And Microwear Analysis Of Stone Tools


Cereal Exploitation: Data From Archaeobotany And Material Culture

Archaeobotanical Studies

Domestication By Unconscious Selection

Interpreting Data From Material Culture: Previous Study Of Natufian Tool Function

Use Of Microliths As Weapon Armatures

Tools Used For Wild Plant Harvesting

The Question Of Soil Preparation

Causes Of So-called “sickle Gloss”

Chemical Analysis Of Residues: An Avenue For Future Research

Groundstone Tools

The Experiments At Jalès

Goals Of Experiments

Source Of Seed Stock And Location Of Experiments

Experimental Tools Used

Data Recorded In The Field Experiments Concerning Harvesting

Summary Of Experimental Results

Planting Time And Techniques

Attributes Of Harvested Product

Viability Of Grains


Harvesting Without Sickles

Harvesting With Sickles

Harvest At Different Stages Of Maturity

Harvesting Rate

Height Of Harvest

Microwear Traces

Striations: Factors And Contexts Influencing Their Occurrence

Possible Cultivation Techniques Of Wild Cereals

Humidity Of Stems At Harvest: Height Of Harvest, Or State Of Maturity?

Explanations For Differences In Amount And Distribution Of Sickle Gloss

Study Of Natufian Plant-harvesting Tools

Sampling Of Archaeological Tools For The Present Study

Sample Attributes

Hayonim Terrace

Abu Hureyra

Mureybet Natufian And Epi-natufian

Results Of The Study Of Archaeological Artefacts

Overall Characteristics

Natufian Of Hayonim Terrace

Harvesting Tools From The Abu Hureyra Epipalaeolithic

Mureybet Natufian And Epi-natufian Harvesting Tools

Limitations Of The Representativity Of The Sample


Transition In Harvesting And Processing Techniques

Cereal-gathering And A Possible Early Cultivation Strategy

Publication Information

Paragraph Subjects (OCM)

Publication Information The main body of the Publication Information page contains all the metadata that HRAF holds for that document.

Author: Author's name as listed in Library of Congress records

Title: Harvesting of wild cereals during the Natufian as seen from experimental cultivation and harvest of wild Einkorn wheat and microwear analysis of stone tools

Published in: if part or section of a book or monograph The Natufian culture in the Levant, edited by Ofer Bar-Yosef & François R. Valla

Published By: Original publisher The Natufian culture in the Levant, edited by Ofer Bar-Yosef & François R. Valla Ann Arbor, Mich.: International Monographs in Prehistory. 1991. 521-552 p. ill.

By line: Author's name as appearing in the actual publication Patricia C. Anderson

HRAF Publication Information: New Haven, Conn.: Human Relations Area Files, 2009. Computer File

Culture: Culture name from the Outline of World Cultures (OWC) with the alphanumberic OWC identifier in parenthesis. Epipaleolithic (M080)

Subjects: Document-level OCM identifiers given by the anthropology subject indexers at HRAF Experimental data (1213); Laboratory analysis of materials other than dating methods in archaeology (1212); Collecting (222); Flora (137);

Abstract: Brief abstract written by HRAF anthropologists who have done the subject indexing for the document Anderson conducted experimental field work using replicated stone tools to harvest wild cereals grown on experimental plots in France. The plots have been growing for several years without any human assistance. The stone tools were then examined for microscopic use-traces using the high power analysis approach of L.H. Keeley and a SEM for some. The experimental tools were then compared to sickle blades from several Natufian sites to 'discuss the likelihood of various strategies of wild cereal exploitation during the Natufian, with or without cultivation.' (page 521).

Document Number: HRAF's in-house numbering system derived from the processing order of documents 42

Document ID: HRAF's unique document identifier. The first part is the OWC identifier and the second part is the document number in three digits. m080-042

Document Type: May include journal articles, essays, collections of essays, monographs or chapters/parts of monographs. Essay

Language: Language that the document is written in English

Note: Includes bibliographical references (p. 552-556)

Field Date: The date the researcher conducted the fieldwork or archival research that produced the document 1985-1989 for field experiments

Evaluation: In this alphanumeric code, the first part designates the type of person writing the document, e.g. Ethnographer, Missionary, Archaeologist, Folklorist, Linguist, Indigene, and so on. The second part is a ranking done by HRAF anthropologists based on the strength of the source material on a scale of 1 to 5, as follows: 1 - poor; 2 - fair; 3 - good, useful data, but not uniformly excellent; 4 - excellent secondary data; 5 - excellent primary data Archaeologist-4

Analyst: The HRAF anthropologist who subject indexed the document and prepared other materials for the eHRAF culture/tradition collection. Sarah Berry; 2007

Coverage Date: The date or dates that the information in the document pertains to (often not the same as the field date). 10,000-8,000 BC (12,000 BP- 10,000 BP)

Coverage Place: Location of the research culture or tradition (often a smaller unit such as a band, community, or archaeological site) Abu Hureyra and Mureybet, Syria and Hayonim Terrace, Israel

LCSH: Library of Congress Subject Headings Natufian culture/Middle East--Antiquities


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