Aikens, C. Melvin. Hogup Cave

Table of Contents

Publication Information

Setting, Excavation, Stratigraphy

General Setting

Excavation Procedures


Summary Of Cultural Features

Evaluation Of Stratigraphy And Dating Of Strata With Reference To C-14 Determinations




Chipped Stone

Projectile Point Descriptions

Projectile Point Fragments

Comparison Of Hogup And Danger Cave Projectile Points

Discussion Of Projectile Points With Reference To Hogup And Danger Caves

Projectile Point Types As Time Markers In The Great Basin

Blades And Choppers

Crude Bifaces And Unifaces


Spokeshaves And Drills

Chipped Stone Raw Materials

Ground Stone

Shaft Smoothers

Grooved Stones

Milling Stones



Pounding/abrading Stones

Abrading Stones

Pecking Stones

Pounding Stones

Edge Ground Cobbles

Stone Ball

Crude Bifacially Worked Stones

Tabular Stones


Smoothed Or Polished Stones

Pigment Stones


Incised Stones

Stone Phalli

Unworked Stone

Worked Bone, Antler, Horn, And Shell



Eyed Needles

Net Shuttle


Painted Bones

Wapiti Canine Pendants

Canine Tooth Pendant

Human Tooth

Bone Pendant

Disc Beads

Tubular Beads

Bone Tubes

Bone Pipe

Bone Whistle

Bone Balls

Bone Disc

Scapula Tool

Wrapped Bone Splinters

Bone Bundles

Elk Antler Wedge

Hafted Graver

Ring-and-pin-game Variant

Sheep Horn Wrenches

Paint Horn

Horn Spatula


Shell Pendants

Serrated Shells

Unworked Shell

Unworked Bone

Hide Artifacts


Rawhide Sandal

Rabbit Fur Robes

Rabbit Fur Robe Fragments

Twisted Skin Strips With Cordage



Modified Soft Hide

Modified Rawhide

Soft Hide Strips

Rawhide Strips

Soft Hide Thongs

Rawhide Thongs

Unmodified Soft Hide

Unmodified Rawhide

Worked Feathers

Cut Feathers

Wrapped Feathers

Unworked Feathers

Worked Plant Fibers

Sagebrush Bark And Grass Pads

Finely Shredded Sagebrush Bark Bundle

Knotted Sagebrush Bark Bundles

Wrapped Sagebrush Bark Bundles

Wrapped Fiber Rings

Wrapped Fiber Bundles

Knotted Reed Bundles

Braided Reed Objects

Wrapped Reeds

Anthropomorphic Figurines


Summary And Inferences

Settlement Units

Unit 1, 6400–1250 B.c.

Unit Ii, 1250 B.c.–a.d. 400

Unit Iii, A.d. 400–1350

Unit Iv, A.d. 1350–1850

Summary Of Settlement Unit Sequence

Problems Of Culture History

The Danger Cave Sequence

Climatic And Cultural Change

The Desert Culture Concept

The Fremont Problem

The Numic Problem

Summary And Concluding Observations

Publication Information

Paragraph Subjects (OCM)

Publication Information The main body of the Publication Information page contains all the metadata that HRAF holds for that document.

Author: Author's name as listed in Library of Congress records

Title: Hogup Cave

Published By: Original publisher Salt Lake City: University of Utah Press. 1970. xiii, 212 p. ill., maps

By line: Author's name as appearing in the actual publication [by] C. Melvin Aikens

HRAF Publication Information: New Haven, Conn.: Human Relations Area Files, 2010. Computer File

Culture: Culture name from the Outline of World Cultures (OWC) with the alphanumberic OWC identifier in parenthesis. Early Desert Archaic (NT50)

Subjects: Document-level OCM identifiers given by the anthropology subject indexers at HRAF Cultural stratigraphy (912); Archaeological excavation methods (1210); Bone, horn, and shell technology (321); Woodworking (322); Lithic industries (324); Weapons (411); General tools (412);

Abstract: Brief abstract written by HRAF anthropologists who have done the subject indexing for the document This is the site report for Aikens excavations at Hogup Cave. The excavations and artifacts are described and analyzed. The cave had excellent preservation with minimal disturbance. The artifacts found included netting, cordage, leather goods such as moccasins, plant parts such as pickleweed seeds, antelope hairs, wooden atlatls, and the more common bone and stone artifacts. Aikens combined the projectile points from Hogup Cave with those from Danger Cave to reclassify the points and create a point type sequence. Jennings, the excavator of Danger Cave, had only numbered the point types in anticipation that someone in the future would reclassify them. Aikens then used the point type sequence to compare the two caves. The artifact sequence at Hogup Cave confirms many of Jennings findings from Danger Cave, especially that there was minimal change in the artifacts for many thousands of years. Aikens combines Strata 1-8 to form Unit I with the dates of 8400 BP-3250 BP (6400 BC-1250 BC), which is considered to be from the Early to the Late Archaic. As he discusses these strata as a unit and compares this unit to later ones the data that pertain to this unit were marked for Outline of Cultural Material (OCM) codes.

Document Number: HRAF's in-house numbering system derived from the processing order of documents 1

Document ID: HRAF's unique document identifier. The first part is the OWC identifier and the second part is the document number in three digits. nt50-001

Document Type: May include journal articles, essays, collections of essays, monographs or chapters/parts of monographs. Component part(s), monograph

Language: Language that the document is written in English

Note: Includes bibliographical references (p.207-212)

Field Date: The date the researcher conducted the fieldwork or archival research that produced the document 26 June-15 August 1967, 15 June-20 August 1968

Evaluation: In this alphanumeric code, the first part designates the type of person writing the document, e.g. Ethnographer, Missionary, Archaeologist, Folklorist, Linguist, Indigene, and so on. The second part is a ranking done by HRAF anthropologists based on the strength of the source material on a scale of 1 to 5, as follows: 1 - poor; 2 - fair; 3 - good, useful data, but not uniformly excellent; 4 - excellent secondary data; 5 - excellent primary data Archaeologist-4, 5

Analyst: The HRAF anthropologist who subject indexed the document and prepared other materials for the eHRAF culture/tradition collection. Sarah Berry; 2010

Coverage Date: The date or dates that the information in the document pertains to (often not the same as the field date). 8400-150 BP (6400 BC-AD 1850)

Coverage Place: Location of the research culture or tradition (often a smaller unit such as a band, community, or archaeological site) Units I-IV, Hogup Cave, Utah, United States

LCSH: Library of Congress Subject Headings Hogup Cave (Utah)


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