Aldenderfer, Mark S.. Montane Foragers: Asana and the south-central Andean archaic

Table of Contents

Publication Information

1 High-mountain Environments As A Human Habitat

Defining High-altitude, High-mountain, And Montane Environments

High-mountain Ecology

Environmental Heterogeneity


Low Predictability

Low Primary Productivity

High Instability And Fragility

Human Biology At High Altitude


Cold Stress

Mobility In High Mountains

Estimating Mobility Costs

Adaptive Strategies In High Mountains

Adaptationist Versus Behaviorist Perspectives

Definitions And Basic Concepts

Behavioral Responses To High-mountain Ecology

Constraints On Mobility And Behavioral Responses

Behavioral Responses To Constraints On Human Biology

Models Of Montane Foraging

2 The South-central Andes And The Osmore Basin As A Human Habitat

Regional Ecology And Environmental Zonation

High-sierra And Puna Rim Environments Of The Osmore Basin: The Río Asana


Vegetation And Plant Communities

Behavioral Ecology Of The Major Herbivores

High-sierra, Puna Rim, And High-mountain Ecology

Environmental Heterogeneity




Fragility And Instability

Mobility Constraints

Paleoenvironments In The South-central Andes

3 The Archaic Period Archaeology Of The Western Flanks Of The South-central Andes

Archaic Period Chronology

Models Of High-sierra And Puna Rim Land Use

History Of High-sierra-puna Rim Research In The Osmore Basin

Survey Procedures

Testing At Rockshelters And Open-air Sites

4 Field And Analytical Methods

Excavation Strategy And History At Asana

Goals And Methods Of Artifact Analysis

Chipped Stone Lithics

Ground Stone Tools

Faunal Remains

Beyond Butchery: Identifying Other Processing Techniques

Goals And Methods Of Distributional Analyses

5 The Geological Setting Of Asana

Asana Stratigraphy And Chronology

Initial Observations Of Site Stratigraphy

Stratigraphy Of The West Block

Stratigraphy Of The Central Block

Stratigraphy Of The East Block

Radiocarbon Chronology And Level Correlations

Landslide Dynamics

Water Ponding In The Middle To Late Holocene

Volcanic Sediments

6 The Discovery And Initial Permanent Settlement Of The Highlands


A Model Of The Discovery Of The Highlands

Environmental Contexts Of Early Highland Life

Biological Contexts Of Early Highland Life

Clothing And The Early Occupation Of The Highlands

A Summary Of A Model Of The Discovery Of The Highlands

Asana I/puruma Phase

Early Archaic Settlement Patterns (11,000–8000 B.p.)

Level Pxxxiii (9830 B.p.)

Level Pxxxii (ca. 9600 B.p.)

Level Pxxx (9500 B.p.)

Summary: Asana I/puruma Phase Occupation

Asana Ii/khituña Phase

Level Pxxix (ca. 9400 B.p.)

Level Pxxiv (ca. 8700 B.p.)

Summary: Asana Ii/khituña Phase Occupation

7 Growth, Emergent Complexity, And Decline: Asana From 8700 To 5000 B.p.

Asana Iii/jilaña Phase

Level Pxvii (ca. 8300 B.p.)

Level Pxiv (ca. 8100 B.p.)

Summary: Asana Iii/filaña Phase

Asana Iv/muruq'uta Phase

Middle Archaic Settlement Patterns

Level Xix (ca. 7100 B.p.)

Level Xviic (ca. 6850 B.p.)

Level Xiv (ca. 6000 B.p.)

The Demise Of The Scraping Tool

Early Public Structures

Summary: Asana Iv/muruq'uta Phase

Asana V/pisi Mara Phase

Level Xii (5345 B.p.)

8 Rapid Transformation: Asana From 5000 To 3600 B.p.

Asana Vi/qhuna Phase (5000–4400 B.p.)

Asana Vi/qhuna Phase Settlement Patterns

Level Viii (4610 B.p.)

Asana Vi/qhuna Phase Ceremonial Structures

Variability In Domestic Architecture

Summary: Asana Vi/qhuna Phase

Asana Vii/awati Phase (4400–3600 B.p.)

Asana Vii/awati Phase Settlement Patterns

Level Iv (4340 B.p.)

Level Ii (3640 B.p.)

Summary: Asana Vii/awati Phase

9 Asana And Models Of Montane Foraging

Diet Choice

Methodology And Modeling

Productivity Of High Reliability Resources

Productivity Of Low Reliability Resources

Central Places And Resource Ranking

Regional Perspectives On Diet Choice

A Temporal Perspective On Diet Choice



Frequency Of Mobility

Seasonality Of Mobility

Risk Amelioration Strategies

Territorial Defense



Mutual Access To Territory Through Mobility

Archaic Period Complementarity

Other Social Pathways To Risk Amelioration?

Publication Information

Paragraph Subjects (OCM)

Publication Information The main body of the Publication Information page contains all the metadata that HRAF holds for that document.

Author: Author's name as listed in Library of Congress records

Title: Montane Foragers: Asana and the south-central Andean archaic

Published By: Original publisher Iowa City, Iowa: University of Iowa Press. 1998. xv, 327 p. ill., maps

By line: Author's name as appearing in the actual publication by Mark S. Aldenderfer

HRAF Publication Information: New Haven, Conn.: Human Relations Area Files, 2000. Computer File

Culture: Culture name from the Outline of World Cultures (OWC) with the alphanumberic OWC identifier in parenthesis. Highland Andean Archaic (SE47)

Subjects: Document-level OCM identifiers given by the anthropology subject indexers at HRAF Archaeological excavation methods (1210); Fauna (136); Flora (137); Lithic industries (324); Dwellings (342); Religious and educational structures (346); Heating and lighting equipment (354); Settlement patterns (361); Refuse disposal and sanitary facilities (364); General tools (412); Chronologies and culture sequences (911); Cultural stratigraphy (912);

Abstract: Brief abstract written by HRAF anthropologists who have done the subject indexing for the document Aldenderfer uses the first chapter of this book to explore how people are effected by high mountain environments. He uses studies from around the world to point out the affects of high altitude on humans in the Andes and how the first peoples would have had to adapt. He then describes the environment and his research in the Osmore Basin. In addition to excavation at the site of Asana Aldenderfer conducted extensive 'non-site' surveys of the Asana valley. Several sites were found in addition to surface densities of artifacts. The settlement system of the Asana valley is explored. The site of Asana ranges in age from about 10,000 B.P. to 3600 B.P. (only the data pertaining to the Middle and Late Archaic were indexed for Outline of Cultural Material codes). The site was a residential base of surprising complexity. with public and ceremonial architecture, ceremonial minatures, other ceremonial features, and domestic dwellings and changed from a hunting camp to a residential base to a residential base for pastoralists.

Document Number: HRAF's in-house numbering system derived from the processing order of documents 2

Document ID: HRAF's unique document identifier. The first part is the OWC identifier and the second part is the document number in three digits. se47-002

Document Type: May include journal articles, essays, collections of essays, monographs or chapters/parts of monographs. Monograph

Language: Language that the document is written in English

Note: Includes bibliographal references (p. 309-324)

Field Date: The date the researcher conducted the fieldwork or archival research that produced the document 1985-1991

Evaluation: In this alphanumeric code, the first part designates the type of person writing the document, e.g. Ethnographer, Missionary, Archaeologist, Folklorist, Linguist, Indigene, and so on. The second part is a ranking done by HRAF anthropologists based on the strength of the source material on a scale of 1 to 5, as follows: 1 - poor; 2 - fair; 3 - good, useful data, but not uniformly excellent; 4 - excellent secondary data; 5 - excellent primary data Archaeologist-4, 5

Analyst: The HRAF anthropologist who subject indexed the document and prepared other materials for the eHRAF culture/tradition collection. Sarah Berry ; 2002

Coverage Date: The date or dates that the information in the document pertains to (often not the same as the field date). 7800 BP-3600 BP

Coverage Place: Location of the research culture or tradition (often a smaller unit such as a band, community, or archaeological site) site of Asana; Peru

LCSH: Library of Congress Subject Headings Indians of South America--Andes--Antiquities


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