Mughal, Mohammad Rafique, 1936-. Ancient Cholistan: archaeology and architecture

Table of Contents

Publication Information

I. Introduction

Physical Environment Of Cholistan

Hydrographic Changes

Previous Explorations Along The Ghaggar-hakra

The Recent Surveys

Ii. The Sites, Their Cultural Association And Frequencies

The Sites

Cultural Association And Dating Of Sites

The Hakra Wares Period (circa 3500 B.c. — 3100/3000 B.c.)

The Early Harappan Period (circa 3100/3000 B.c. — 2500 B.c.)

The Mature Harappan Period (circa 2500 B.c. — 2000/1900 B.c.)

The Late Harappan Period (circa 2000/1900 B.c. — 1500 B.c.)

The Painted Grey Wares Period (circa 1100/1000 B.c. — 600/500 B.c.)

The Early Historical And Medieval Periods

Frequency And Size Of Sites

The Hakra Wares Sites

The Early Harappan Sites

The Mature Harappan Sites

The Late Harappan Sites

The Painted Grey Wares Sites

Settlement Patterns In Cholistan: Discussion

The Early Historical And Islamic Sites

Iii. The Ceramics And Antiquities

Hakra Wares

(a) Hakra Incised ( Pls. 32 And 33 , And Fig. 9, Nos. 13 And 19 )

(b) Hakra Applique ( Pls. 34 , 35 And 36 ; Fig. 8, No. 5 ; Fig. 9, Nos. 12 And 15 )

(c) Hakra Black Burnished ( Pls. 37 & 38, No. 1–3 ; Fig. 8, No. 3 And 10 )

(d) Cups, Bowls And Dishes

(e) Painted Buff Pottery

(f) Painted Pottery ( Pl. 38, Nos. 4–17 ; Pl. 41 : Catalogue; Fig. 8, No. 2 And Fig. 9, Nos. 14 And 15 )

(g) Saucer-shaped Lids

(h) Grey Pottery ( Fig. 8, No. 3 )

(i) Pedestalled Pottery ( Fig. 8, Nos. 6 And 11 )


Early Harappan Pottery


Mature Harappan Pottery


Late Harappan Pottery

(a) The Cemetery ‘h’ Pottery

(b) New Wares (cemetery H—associated)

(c) The Mature Harappan Pottery


Painted Grey Wares (pgw)

Antiquities ( Pl. 91 )

Catalogue Of Illustrated Pottery And Antiquities

The Hakra Wares Period



The Early Harappan Period




The Mature Harappan Period




The Late Harappan Period



The Painted Grey Wares Period



Iv. Monuments At Uchh Sharif

Tomb Of Syed Safiuddin Haqqani Gazroni

Tomb Of Syed Jalaluddin Bokhari Alias ‘jalal Surkh’

Tomb Of Syed Jalaluddin Bokhari Alias Jehanian Jehanghasht

Tomb Of Syed Sadaruddin Rajan (or Raju) Qattal Bokhari

Ancient Tombs Of Qazi Bahauddin Uchhi, Bibi Jiwindi And Abu Hanifa

V. Forts In Cholistan

Bara Fort

Bijnot Fort ( Pls. 113 And 114 Coloured)

Bhagla Fort

Derawar Fort ( Pls. 115 To 118 )

Duhienwala Fort

Falji Fort

Islamgarh Fort ( Pls. 119 And 119a Coloured And 120 – 121 And 121a Coloured)

Jamgarh Fort ( Pls. 122 And Coloured 123 )

Kandera Fort

Khairgarh Fort ( Pl. 124 )

Khangarh Fort

Liara Fort ( Pls. 125 And 126 )

Machki Fort ( Pl. 127 And Coloured 128 )

Marot Fort ( Pls. 129 , 130 And Coloured 131 )

Mirgarh Fort (pls. Coloured 132 And 133 )

Mojgarh Fort ( Pls. 134 And Coloured 135 And 136 )

Murid Fort

Nawan Kot ( Pl. 137 )

Phulra Fort ( Pl. 138 )

Publication Information

Paragraph Subjects (OCM)

Publication Information The main body of the Publication Information page contains all the metadata that HRAF holds for that document.

Author: Author's name as listed in Library of Congress records

Title: Ancient Cholistan: archaeology and architecture

Published By: Original publisher Rawalpindi: Ferozsons (Pvt.) Ltd.. 1997. 170 p. ill.

By line: Author's name as appearing in the actual publication Mohammad Rafique Mughal

HRAF Publication Information: New Haven, Conn.: Human Relations Area Files, 2016. Computer File

Culture: Culture name from the Outline of World Cultures (OWC) with the alphanumberic OWC identifier in parenthesis. Early Indus (AQ43)

Subjects: Document-level OCM identifiers given by the anthropology subject indexers at HRAF Archaeological survey methods (129); Identification (101); Settlement patterns (361); Location (131); Territorial hierarchy (631);

Abstract: Brief abstract written by HRAF anthropologists who have done the subject indexing for the document The author conducted four seasons of survey in the Cholistan zone of Punjab province, Pakistan, mainly along the Hakra (Ghaggar-Hakra) River, expanding the corpus of known sites and settlement types for the Early and Mature Indus and for the Vedic traditions. Some sites were excavated to determine stratigraphy and dating.

Document Number: HRAF's in-house numbering system derived from the processing order of documents 7

Document ID: HRAF's unique document identifier. The first part is the OWC identifier and the second part is the document number in three digits. aq43-007

Document Type: May include journal articles, essays, collections of essays, monographs or chapters/parts of monographs. Monograph

Language: Language that the document is written in English

Note: Includes bibliographical references (p. 163-166) and index

Field Date: The date the researcher conducted the fieldwork or archival research that produced the document 1972, 1974-1977, 1983, 1993-1997

Evaluation: In this alphanumeric code, the first part designates the type of person writing the document, e.g. Ethnographer, Missionary, Archaeologist, Folklorist, Linguist, Indigene, and so on. The second part is a ranking done by HRAF anthropologists based on the strength of the source material on a scale of 1 to 5, as follows: 1 - poor; 2 - fair; 3 - good, useful data, but not uniformly excellent; 4 - excellent secondary data; 5 - excellent primary data Archaeologist-4,5

Analyst: The HRAF anthropologist who subject indexed the document and prepared other materials for the eHRAF culture/tradition collection. Sarah Berry;2015

Coverage Date: The date or dates that the information in the document pertains to (often not the same as the field date). 6000-100 BP

Coverage Place: Location of the research culture or tradition (often a smaller unit such as a band, community, or archaeological site) Bahawalnagar, Bahawalpur, and Rahimyar Khan districts, Punjab, Pakistan

LCSH: Library of Congress Subject Headings Excavations (Archaeology)--Pakistan--Cholistan Desert//Architecture--Pakistan--Cholistan Desert//Cholistan Desert (Pakistan)--Antiquities


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