Marks, Anthony E.. The Khormusan: an Upper Pleistocene industry in Sudanese Nubia

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Publication Information

Paragraph Subjects (OCM)

Publication Information The main body of the Publication Information page contains all the metadata that HRAF holds for that document.

Author: Author's name as listed in Library of Congress records

Title: The Khormusan: an Upper Pleistocene industry in Sudanese Nubia

Published in: if part or section of a book or monograph The prehistory of Nubia; [final report] Papers assembled and edited by Fred Wendorf

Published By: Original publisher The prehistory of Nubia; [final report] Papers assembled and edited by Fred Wendorf [Taos, N.M.]: Fort Burgwin Research Center; [distributed by] Southern Methodist University Press [Dallas]. 1968. 315-391 p. ill., maps

By line: Author's name as appearing in the actual publication Anthony E. Marks

HRAF Publication Information: New Haven, Conn.: Human Relations Area Files, 2004. Computer File

Culture: Culture name from the Outline of World Cultures (OWC) with the alphanumberic OWC identifier in parenthesis. Middle Paleolithic Egypt (MR45)

Subjects: Document-level OCM identifiers given by the anthropology subject indexers at HRAF Identification (101); Organization and analysis of results of research (128); Topography and geology (133); Lithic industries (324); General tools (412); Cultural stratigraphy (912); Typologies and classifications (914);

Abstract: Brief abstract written by HRAF anthropologists who have done the subject indexing for the document Marks describes and defines the Khormusan industry. The industry was first recognized with the excavation of sites 1017 and ANW-3 in 1965. Only five sites represent the Khormusan industry. (Marks dates the industry from approximately 32,000 to 16,000 B.P., while Fred Wendorf, who wrote the culture summary for Middle Paleolithic Egypt in the Encyclopedia of Prehistory dates site 1017 from 65,000 B.P. to 40,000 B.P. The Khormusan now appears to be considered a Middle Paleolithic industry and not an Upper Paleolithic one as stated by Marks.) In this report Marks describes the major traits of the Khormusan, describes each site individually, illustrates selected stone artifacts, and compares the Khormusan to contemporary adjacent cultures. Marks believes these people hunted and fished along the Nile and, due to the numerous burins found at the sites, made reed and wood tools, perhaps even reed and wood traps for fishing. All five sites had ground hematite. Surprisingly, two bone tools were found at site ANW-3. They may be the earliest bone tools in Nubia.

Document Number: HRAF's in-house numbering system derived from the processing order of documents 5

Document ID: HRAF's unique document identifier. The first part is the OWC identifier and the second part is the document number in three digits. mr45-005

Document Type: May include journal articles, essays, collections of essays, monographs or chapters/parts of monographs. Essay

Language: Language that the document is written in English

Note: For bibliographical references see document 6: [Wendorf]

Field Date: The date the researcher conducted the fieldwork or archival research that produced the document 1961-1965

Evaluation: In this alphanumeric code, the first part designates the type of person writing the document, e.g. Ethnographer, Missionary, Archaeologist, Folklorist, Linguist, Indigene, and so on. The second part is a ranking done by HRAF anthropologists based on the strength of the source material on a scale of 1 to 5, as follows: 1 - poor; 2 - fair; 3 - good, useful data, but not uniformly excellent; 4 - excellent secondary data; 5 - excellent primary data Archaeologist-4, 5

Analyst: The HRAF anthropologist who subject indexed the document and prepared other materials for the eHRAF culture/tradition collection. Sarah Berry ; 2002

Coverage Date: The date or dates that the information in the document pertains to (often not the same as the field date). Khormusan; 27,000 BP -16,000 BP (but probably 65,000 BP-40,000 BP)

Coverage Place: Location of the research culture or tradition (often a smaller unit such as a band, community, or archaeological site) Nile Valley; northern Sudan

LCSH: Library of Congress Subject Headings Paleolithic period--Egypt


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