Burger, Richard L.. Chavin and the origins of Andean civilization

Table of Contents

Publication Information

I Introduction

Peruvian Chronology

The Setting

The Coast

The Highlands

The Tropical Forest And The Ceja De Selva

The Changing Environment

2 The Late Preceramic And The Beginnings Of Peruvian Civilization

The Late Preceramic Period On The Coast

Fishing, Farming, And Trade

Artifacts And Art

Mortuary Remains

Monumental Architecture

The Domestic Realm

The Late Preceramic In The Highlands


Public Constructions Of The Kotosh Religious Tradition



Ecuador And The Tropical Forest

3 The Initial Period Societies On The Coast

The First Ceramics

The Central Coast And The Tradition Of U-shaped Public Architecture

Settlement And Subsistence

Burials And Social Organization

The North-central Coast And The Tradition Of Pyramids With Circular Courts

The Initial Period Occupation Of The Casma Valley

A Chronology For The Casma Valley

Settlement And Subsistence Systems

Socio-political Organization

Casma's Neighbors: Nepeña And Santa

The Cupisnique Culture Of The North Coast

Cupisnique Architecture

Other Cupisnique Settlements

Cupisnique Art And Ideology

Montegrande And The Mid-valley Settlement Of Jequetepeque

Subsistence And Economy

Technological Developments

The Northern Frontier And Beyond

The Southern Frontier

4 The Initial Period Societies In The Highlands And Montane Forest

The Northern Highlands

Unequal Development In The Highlands Of Huamachuco And Otuzco

The Eastern Slopes And Beyond

The Upper Huallaga And The Callejón De Huaylas

The Central Highlands

The Beginnings Of Gold Metallurgy

5 The Early Ceremonial Center Of Chavín De Huántar

The Old Temple

The Circular Plaza

The Galleries

Chavín Sculpture

The Chavín Style

Chronology Of Sculpture

The Lanzón

The Tello Obelisk

Secondary Supernaturals

Tropical Forest Symbols In Chavín Art

Hallucinogens And Chavín Ritual

The Urabarriu-phase Settlement

Urabarriu-phase Diet

Craft Production

The Northern Wall

6 The Proto-urban Center Of Chavín De Huántar


The Chakinani-phase Settlement

Ceramic Style


The Janabarriu Settlement


Other Products

Differentiation In Janabarriu Society

The New Temple



7 The Florescence And Collapse Of Chavín Civilization

Crisis On The Coast

Prosperity In The Highlands

A Functional Interpretation Of The Chavín Horizon

The Pachacamac Model For Andean Regional Cults

Ideological Flexibility And The Chavín Cult

Religion, Innovation, And Diffusion

Social Stratification And The Chavín Cult

Subsistence Diversity During The Chavín Horizon

Interregional Exchange And The Chavín Horizon

Ceramic Style And Changing Cultural Identity

The Northern Frontiers Of Chavín Civilization

The Tropical Forest

The Southern Highlands

Some Concluding Thoughts On Chavín Civilization

8 Epilogue

Publication Information

Paragraph Subjects (OCM)

Publication Information The main body of the Publication Information page contains all the metadata that HRAF holds for that document.

Author: Author's name as listed in Library of Congress records

Title: Chavin and the origins of Andean civilization

Published By: Original publisher London: Thames and Hudson. 1992. 248 p. ill.

By line: Author's name as appearing in the actual publication Richard L. Burger

HRAF Publication Information: New Haven, Conn.: Human Relations Area Files, 2004. Computer File

Culture: Culture name from the Outline of World Cultures (OWC) with the alphanumberic OWC identifier in parenthesis. Chavín (SE49)

Subjects: Document-level OCM identifiers given by the anthropology subject indexers at HRAF Historical reconstruction (174); Acculturation and culture contact (177); Cultural participation (184); Ceramic technology (323); Lithic industries (324); Religious and educational structures (346); Settlement patterns (361); Utensils (415); External trade (439); Visual arts (5311); Spirits and gods (776); Sacred objects and places (778); Chronologies and culture sequences (911);

Abstract: Brief abstract written by HRAF anthropologists who have done the subject indexing for the document This book provides an excellent overview of Chavín culture. Burger begins his book by stating, 'Public architecture and other elements more fully developed in Chavín civilization first appear during the Late Preceramic, and became more numerous during the Initial Period. In fact, many of the traits that Tello believed were diagnostic of Chavín civilization are now known to be much earlier in date. Therefore, in order to trace the genesis of early Peruvian civilization it will be necessary to consider in the chapters that follow the Late Preceramic and the Initial Period, as well as the Early Horizon, before moving on to Chavín itself.' (page 11). However, only the data that pertain to Chavín were indexed for OCM (Outline of Cultural Materials) subjects. Burger describes the evironmental setting for the Peruvian coast, highlands and eastern slopes of the Andes. He then goes on to discuss the beginings of Peruvian civilization (defined as the groups of people able to construct monumental architecture) in the late Preceramic Period. The various societies on the coast and in the highlands are described, especially their public architecture, economies, art, settlement patterns, burials, and interactions (such as trade) between coastal communities and coastal and highland communities. The Inital Period and Early Horizon are described in similar detail. In his description of the Early Horizon, Burger also discusses which societies participated in the Chavín Horizon and which did not. Burger highlights the strictly Peruvian thought patterns and ways of doing things that made Chavín possible (such as the spread of the Chavín cult without the use of proselytizing missionaries). The fall of Chavín is explored along with the changes that entailed. It is suggested that since Chavín was not a strong centralized state it could not maintain long-term stability. The reader should be aware that the end notes were not indexed for OCM subjects. All OCM subjects for the various end notes were added to the appropriate paragraphs in the main text of the book. The paragraphs are hyperlinked to the end notes.

Document Number: HRAF's in-house numbering system derived from the processing order of documents 3

Document ID: HRAF's unique document identifier. The first part is the OWC identifier and the second part is the document number in three digits. se49-003

Document Type: May include journal articles, essays, collections of essays, monographs or chapters/parts of monographs. Monograph

Language: Language that the document is written in English

Note: Includes bibliographical references (p. 238-244) and index

Field Date: The date the researcher conducted the fieldwork or archival research that produced the document 1970s and 1980s

Evaluation: In this alphanumeric code, the first part designates the type of person writing the document, e.g. Ethnographer, Missionary, Archaeologist, Folklorist, Linguist, Indigene, and so on. The second part is a ranking done by HRAF anthropologists based on the strength of the source material on a scale of 1 to 5, as follows: 1 - poor; 2 - fair; 3 - good, useful data, but not uniformly excellent; 4 - excellent secondary data; 5 - excellent primary data Archaeologist-4, 5

Analyst: The HRAF anthropologist who subject indexed the document and prepared other materials for the eHRAF culture/tradition collection. Sarah Berry ; 2003

Coverage Date: The date or dates that the information in the document pertains to (often not the same as the field date). Late Initial - Early Horizon

Coverage Place: Location of the research culture or tradition (often a smaller unit such as a band, community, or archaeological site) Peru

LCSH: Library of Congress Subject Headings Chavín culture


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