Mester, Ann Marie, 1957-. The pearl divers of Los Frailes: archaeological and ethnohistorical explorations of sumptuary good trade and cosmology in the north and central Andes

Table of Contents

Publication Information

Chapter 1 Introduction

1.1 Previous Scholarship

1.2 The Development Of The Concept Of Manteno Culture

1.3 The Manteno League Of Merchants

1.4 The Roots Of Long-distance Trade In The Andes

Chapter 2 The Natural History Of South Coastal Manabi

2.1 Ecological Zones Of South Coastal Manabi

2.2 Climate Of The Ecuadorian Coast

2.3 Flora And Fauna Of Southern Manabi

2.4 Geologic History Of Southern Manabi

2.5 Modern Economic Adaptation

2.6 Remarks On The 1983 El Nino

Chapter 3 The Layout And Stratigraphy Of The Los Frailes Mound Complex

3.1 Site Layout

3.2 Los Frailes And The Northern Andean City

3.3 Excavations Of Platform Mound Om-jp-mh-108a

3.3.1 Excavation Aims

3.3.2 Excavation Methodology

3.3.3 Major Excavation Units

3.3.4 The Three Master Profiles

3.4 Excavations At Om-jp-mh-108f

Chapter 4 The Los Frailes Ceramic Assemblage

4.1 General Considerations

4.2 Ceramic Analysis Of Om-jp-mh-108f

4.2.1 Ceramic Wares

4.2.2 Paste Inclusion Analysis

4.2.3 Analysis Of Decorative Modes

4.2.4 The Mh108f Ceramic Assemblage

4.2.5 Pattern Burnished Decoration In The Mh108f Assemblage

4.2.6 Summary

4.3 Ceramic Analysis Of Workshop Om-jp-mh-108a

4.3.1 The Workshop Ceramic Assemblage

4.3.2 Pattern Burnished Decoration In The Workshop Assemblage

4.3.3 Interpretive Remarks

4.4 Ceramic Analysis Of Bell-shaped Pits 46 And 499

4.4.1 Pit 46: A Manteño Storage Facility

4.4.2 Pit 499: A Manteño Tomb

4.4.3 Artifact Content As An Indicator Of Pit Function

4.5 The Early Manteno Vessel Set In The Los Frailes Ceramic Assemblage

4.5.1 Utilitarian Ware

4.5.2 Serving Ware

Chapter 5 Marine Shell Utilization And The Pearl Shell Industry At The Los Frailes Site

5.1 Introduction

5.2 Data Collection And Variables

5.3 Raw Shell From Om-jp-mh-108f

5.4 Raw Shell From Om-jp-mh-108a

5.5 Raw Shell From Pit 46

5.6 Raw Shell From Burial Pit 499

5.7 Shell Content As An Indicator Of Pit Function

5.8 Marine Econiche Exploitation At Los Frailes

5.9 The Los Frailes Shell Bead Industry

5.9.1 Spondylus Beads

5.9.2 Rectangular Plaques Of Pteria Sterna

5.10 Implications Of The Pearl Shell Industry For The Manteno Lifestyle

Chapter 6 Pearl Fishing During The Spanish Colonia

6.1 Introduction

6.2 Ethnohistorical Texts

6.3 Corroborating Contemporary Research

Chapter 7 Color Symbolism, Sumptuary Goods And Cosmology In The Americas

7.1 The Pearl Oyster And The Ideology Of The Inca Conquest State

7.1.1 Introduction

7.1.2 The Pearl Oysters In Andean Cosmology

7.1.3 Shining Objects As Symbols For The Inca Dynasty

7.1.4 “we And “they”

7.2 “shedding Light” On Native American Cosmology

7.2.1 Introduction

7.2.2 The Desana

7.2.3 The Kogi

7.2.4 The Peruvian Coast

7.2.5 The Northeastern North American Woodlands

7.2.6 Conclusions

Chapter 8 Conclusions

8.1 Introduction

8.2 The Archaeology Of Andean Maritime Trade

8.3 The Early Manteno Ceramic Assemblage

8.4 Colonial Pearl Fishing In Ecuador

8.5 The Pearl Oyster In Andean Trade And Ideology

Publication Information

Paragraph Subjects (OCM)

Publication Information The main body of the Publication Information page contains all the metadata that HRAF holds for that document.

Author: Author's name as listed in Library of Congress records

Title: The pearl divers of Los Frailes: archaeological and ethnohistorical explorations of sumptuary good trade and cosmology in the north and central Andes

Published By: Original publisher Ann Arbor, Michigan: University Microfilms International, 1990 [1997 copy]. xxiii, 558 p.: ill., maps

By line: Author's name as appearing in the actual publication By Ann Marie Mester

HRAF Publication Information: New Haven, Conn.: HRAF, 1998. Computer file

Culture: Culture name from the Outline of World Cultures (OWC) with the alphanumberic OWC identifier in parenthesis. Manteño (SD50)

Subjects: Document-level OCM identifiers given by the anthropology subject indexers at HRAF Organization and analysis of results of research (128); Fauna (136); Prehistory (172); Bone, horn, and shell technology (321); Ceramic technology (323); External trade (439); Visual arts (5311);

Abstract: Brief abstract written by HRAF anthropologists who have done the subject indexing for the document This dissertation consists of two major parts. The first part presents “...an archaeological study of an early Manteño pearl shell workshop and related features, uncovered during excavations conducted at the Los Frailes Mound Complex on the southern coast of Manabi Province, Ecuador. Los Frailes has been identified as the ancient town of Tusco, one of four core towns in the contact-period Señorío de Salangome, a polity based on long-distance maritime trade in sumptuary goods. The dissertation establishes the role of specialized, single-product workshops in the Manteño trading organization. Detailed descriptions of the shell artifacts, the tools used to work the shell, and the techniques of bead and plaque manufacute are presented. Drawing on detailed interpretation of physical stratigraphy, as well as on modal analysis of ceramic attributes, the Los Frailes ceramic analysis presents a careful micro-chronology of the earliest part of the Manteño phase, making more clear its antecedents with the earlier Guangala phase” (p. iii). The remainder of the document discusses pertinent ehtnohistorical and ethnographic data relevant to the role of the pearl oyster in Andean cosmology.

Document Number: HRAF's in-house numbering system derived from the processing order of documents 1

Document ID: HRAF's unique document identifier. The first part is the OWC identifier and the second part is the document number in three digits. sd50-001

Document Type: May include journal articles, essays, collections of essays, monographs or chapters/parts of monographs. monograph

Language: Language that the document is written in English

Note:

UM 9026269

Thesis (Ph.D.) -- University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1990

Includes bibliographical references (p. 534-556)

Field Date: The date the researcher conducted the fieldwork or archival research that produced the document 1980-1985

Evaluation: In this alphanumeric code, the first part designates the type of person writing the document, e.g. Ethnographer, Missionary, Archaeologist, Folklorist, Linguist, Indigene, and so on. The second part is a ranking done by HRAF anthropologists based on the strength of the source material on a scale of 1 to 5, as follows: 1 - poor; 2 - fair; 3 - good, useful data, but not uniformly excellent; 4 - excellent secondary data; 5 - excellent primary data Archaeologist-5

Analyst: The HRAF anthropologist who subject indexed the document and prepared other materials for the eHRAF culture/tradition collection. John Beierle; 1997

Coverage Date: The date or dates that the information in the document pertains to (often not the same as the field date). 1500 B.P. - 500 B.P.

Coverage Place: Location of the research culture or tradition (often a smaller unit such as a band, community, or archaeological site) Los Frailes Mound Complex, southern coast of Manabí Province, Ecuador

LCSH: Library of Congress Subject Headings Indians of South America--Ecuador--Antiquities

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