Publication Information The main body of the Publication Information page contains all the metadata that HRAF holds for that document.
Author: Author's name as listed in Library of Congress records
Walker, Nicholas John
Late Pleistocene and Holocene hunter-gatherers of the Matopos: an archaeological study of change and continuity in Zimbabwe
Published By: Original publisher
Uppsala: Societas Archaeologica Upsaliensis. 1995. 284 p. ill.
By line: Author's name as appearing in the actual publication
by Nicholas John Walker
HRAF Publication Information: New Haven, Conn.:
Human Relations Area Files, 2004. Computer File
Culture: Culture name from the Outline of World Cultures (OWC) with the alphanumberic OWC identifier in parenthesis.
Subjects: Document-level OCM identifiers given by the anthropology subject indexers at HRAF
Bone, horn, and shell technology (321);
Lithic industries (324);
General tools (412);
Visual arts (5311);
Abstract: Brief abstract written by HRAF anthropologists who have done the subject indexing for the document
Walker reports on his archaeological findings from the region known as the Matopos in western Zimbabwe. The archaeology encompasses the time period from 15,000 B.P. to 1500 B.P. Only the material that pertains to the Wilton period (10,000 B.P. to 2000 B.P.) was indexed for OCM (Outline of Cultural Materials) codes. Eight sites were excavated and six others had their assemblages re-examined. The main orientation at the start of the field work was to allow Walker to examine the relationship between proposed carrying capacity and expected resource use in the Matopos. This was compared with the actual archaeological findings. Key findings include food resources were based on gathering marula (rather than a wide range of plants) and on hunting a wide range of small animals, at least during the mid Holocene. Group size and population also changed with changes in hunting strategies. Walker believes some of the changes in backed tools (arrows) and beads may indicate a symbolic way to communicate group differences or group boundaries and a way to reinforce social or ritual messages. The archaeological changes that occurred in the Matopos are compared with some of the changes that occurred throughout southern Africa.
Document Number: HRAF's in-house numbering system derived from the processing order of documents
Document ID: HRAF's unique document identifier. The first part is the OWC identifier and the second part is the document number in three digits.
Document Type: May include journal articles, essays, collections of essays, monographs or chapters/parts of monographs.
Language: Language that the document is written in
Includes bibliographical references (p. 259-270)
Field Date: The date the researcher conducted the fieldwork or archival research that produced the document
Evaluation: In this alphanumeric code, the first part designates the type of person writing the document, e.g. Ethnographer, Missionary, Archaeologist, Folklorist, Linguist, Indigene, and so on. The second part is a ranking done by HRAF anthropologists based on the strength of the source material on a scale of 1 to 5, as follows: 1 - poor; 2 - fair; 3 - good, useful data, but not uniformly excellent; 4 - excellent secondary data; 5 - excellent primary data
Analyst: The HRAF anthropologist who subject indexed the document and prepared other materials for the eHRAF culture/tradition collection.
Sarah Berry ; 2002
Coverage Date: The date or dates that the information in the document pertains to (often not the same as the field date).
10,000 BP- 2000 BP
Coverage Place: Location of the research culture or tradition (often a smaller unit such as a band, community, or archaeological site)
the Matopos; Zimbabwe
LCSH: Library of Congress Subject Headings