Ma, X.. Emergent social complexity in the Yangshao culture: analyses of settlement patterns and faunal remains from Lingbao, western Henan, China (c. 4900-3000 BC)

Table of Contents

Publication Information

Chapter 1: Research Problem And Approaches

1.1. Introduction

1.2. Previous Studies Of The Yangshao Culture

1.2.1. Spatial And Temporal Distribution Of The Yangshao Culture

1.2.2. Studies Of Yangshao Social Organisation

1.2.3. Studies Of Faunal Remains

1.2.4. Summary

1.3. Theoretical Approach To Study Of Social Complexity

1.3.1. Defining Complexity

1.3.2. Dimensions Of Social Complexity




1.3.3. Summary

1.4. Methodological Approaches To Study Of Social Complexity

1.4.1. Settlement Pattern Archaeology And Social Complexity

1.4.2. Zooarchaeology And Social Complexity

1.5. The Structure Of The Thesis

Chapter 2: Study Area: Regional Settlement Patterns In Lingbao

2.1. Introduction

2.2. Physical And Cultural Settings In Lingbao

2.2.1. Physical Setting

Location And Topography


Vegetation And Wild Fauna

2.2.2. Cultural Setting

2.3. Archaeological Survey In Zhudingyuan

2.3.1. The Survey Area And Methods

2.3.2. Survey Results

The Pre-yangshao Period ( Ca. 6500–5000 Bc)

The Early Yangshao Period ( Ca. 4900–4000 Bc)

The Middle Yangshao Period ( Ca. 4000–3500 Bc)

The Late Yangshao Period ( Ca. 3500–3000 Bc)

The Early Longshan Period ( Ca. 3000–2500 Bc)

The Late Longshan Period ( Ca. 2500–2000 Bc)

2.3.3. Summary Of The Regional Settlement Patterns

2.4. Settlement Patterns, Agricultural Resources, And Community Integration

2.4.1. Settlement Positioning Strategy And Agricultural Resources

2.4.2. Agricultural Intensification And Community Integration

2.5. Conclusion

Chapter 3: Community Level Settlement Patterns Of The Middle Yangshao Culture: A Case Study At Xipo

3.1. Introduction

3.2. Excavations At The Xipo Site

3.2.1. The Site

3.2.2. Excavation Methods And Data

3.2.3. The Stratigraphy

3.2.4. Description Of Archaeological Features The House Foundations




F105 The Cisterns The Pits

3.2.5. Artefacts

3.2.6. The General Settlement Organisation Of Xipo

3.3. The Status Of The Xipo Settlement

3.3.1. Architectural Construction And Abandonment

3.3.2. The Implication Of Red Pigment (cinnabar) From Xipo Meanings Of Red Pigment In Ethnographic And Archaeological Records Meanings Of Red Pigment/cinnabar In Chinese Historical, And Archaeological Records Red Pigment (cinnabar) From The Xipo Site

3.3.3. Discussion

3.4. Development Of House Structures And Settlement Organisation In The Yangshao Period ( Ca. 4900–3000 Bc)

3.4.1. The Early Yangshao Period ( Ca. 4900–4000 Bc)

3.4.2. The Middle Yangshao Period ( Ca. 4000–3500 Bc)

3.4.3. The Late Yangshao Period ( Ca. 3500–3000 Bc)

3.4.4. Discussion

3.5. Conclusion

Chapter 4: Procedure Of Faunal Analysis

4.1. Introduction

4.2. Sampling

4.3. Identification And Recording

4.4. Quantification

4.5. Evaluation Of Sampling

4.5.1 Evaluation Of Recovery Procedure

Different Parts Of The Site

Identifiable Bones

Unidentifiable Bones

Frequencies Of Identifiable And Unidentifiable Bones

Body Part Representation

4.5.2. Evaluation Of Taphonomic Agents


Soil Ph

Carnivore Disturbance

4.6. Summary

Chapter 5: Range And Relative Importance Of Taxa

5.1. Introduction

5.2. Range And Relative Importance Of Faunal Taxa

5.2.1. Domestic Mammals Pig ( Sus Domesticus ) Previous Research On Early Domestic Pigs In China Status Of Pigs From Xipo

Methods And Data

Results Relative Frequencies Of Pigs At Xipo Dog ( Canis Familiaris )

5.2.2. Wild Mammals Cattle ( Bos Sp.) And Goat ( Capra Sp.) Deer ( Cervidae )

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Sika Deer ( Cervus Nippon )

Water Deer ( Hydropotes Inermis )

Musk Deer ( Moschus Moschiferus )

Deer ( Cervus ) Antelope ( Gazella Sp.), Horse ( Equus Sp.), And Macaque ( Macaca Robustus )

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Antelope ( Gazella Sp.)

Horse ( Equus Sp.)

Macaque ( Macaca Sp.) Bear ( Selenarctos Thibetanus ) And Racoon Dog ( Nyctereutes Procyonoides )

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Bear ( Selenarctos Thibetanus )

Racoon Dog ( Nyctereutes Procyonoides ) Rabbit ( Lepus Sp.), Chicken ( Gallus Sp.), And Porcupine ( Hystrix Sp.)

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Rabbit ( Lepus Sp.)

Chicken ( Gallus Sp.)

Porcupine ( Hystrix Sp.) Bamboo Rat ( Rhizomys Sinensis ), Mole Rat ( Myospalax Fontanierii ), And Hamster ( Sinocricetus Sp.)

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Bamboo Rat ( Rhizomys Sinensis )

Mole Rat ( Myospalax Fontanierii ) And Hamster ( Sinocricetus Sp.)

5.2.3. Other Taxa

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Amphibians, Molluscs, Fish, And Birds

5.3. Proportions Of Domestic And Wild Animal Groups

5.4. Environmental And Ecological Information From Faunas

5.5. The Husbandry Practice For Pigs At Xipo

5.5.1. Estimates Of Pig Population At Xipo: A Hypothesis

5.5.2. Trophic Level For Xipo Pigs

5.6. Conclusion

Chapter 6: Kill-off Patterns For Pigs

6.1. Introduction

6.2. Expectations For Pig Husbandry Strategies

6.3. Methods And Data

6.3.1. Dental Eruption And Wear

6.3.2. Epiphyseal Fusion

6.3.3. Discussion

6.4. Results And Analysis

6.5. Age-based Spatial Distribution Of Pigs

6.6. Discussion

6.7. Conclusion

Chapter 7: Skeletal Frequency, Modification, And Fragmentation

7.1. Introduction

7.2. Butchery And Depositional Expectations

7.3. Skeletal Element Representation And Spatial Distribution

7.3.1. Methods

7.3.2. Results And Analysis

7.4. Modification Of Bones

7.4.1. Methods

7.4.2. Results And Analysis

7.5. Fragmentation

7.5.1. Methods

7.5.2. Results And Analysis

7.6. Discussion And Summary

Chapter 8: Conclusions

8.1. Introduction

8.2. The Emergence Of Social Complexity

8.2.1. The Zhudingyuan Region

8.2.2. The Xipo Community

8.3. Population Growth, Integration, And Competition In Trajectories Of Social Complexity

8.4. Application Of Approaches In Neolithic China

8.5. Directions For Future Research

Publication Information

Paragraph Subjects (OCM)

Publication Information The main body of the Publication Information page contains all the metadata that HRAF holds for that document.

Author: Author's name as listed in Library of Congress records

Title: Emergent social complexity in the Yangshao culture: analyses of settlement patterns and faunal remains from Lingbao, western Henan, China (c. 4900-3000 BC)

Published By: Original publisher Oxford: Archaeopress. 2005. x, 142 p. ill., maps

By line: Author's name as appearing in the actual publication Xiaolin Ma

HRAF Publication Information: New Haven, Conn.: Human Relations Area Files, 2020. Computer File

Culture: Culture name from the Outline of World Cultures (OWC) with the alphanumberic OWC identifier in parenthesis. Middle-Upper Yellow River Middle Neolithic (AF48)

Subjects: Document-level OCM identifiers given by the anthropology subject indexers at HRAF Archaeological survey methods (129); Archaeological excavation methods (1210); Fauna (136); Domesticated animals (231); Diet (262); Land use (311); Settlement patterns (361); Territorial hierarchy (631);

Abstract: Brief abstract written by HRAF anthropologists who have done the subject indexing for the document The author describes and analyzes the findings of a previous regional survey and from excavations at Xipo. The regional survey examined the settlement hierarchy from the pre-Yangshao through the Late Longshan phases. The limited excavations at the large site of Xipo uncovered remains from the Middle Yangshao phase (4000-3500 BC) and the Western Zhou period (1100-771 BC); only the Middle Yangshao remains are described and analyzed. The author concentrates on faunal remains (over eighty percent from domestic pigs), and on shedding light on the environment, land use, diet, and possible social interactions.

Document Number: HRAF's in-house numbering system derived from the processing order of documents 7

Document ID: HRAF's unique document identifier. The first part is the OWC identifier and the second part is the document number in three digits. af48-007

Document Type: May include journal articles, essays, collections of essays, monographs or chapters/parts of monographs. Monograph

Language: Language that the document is written in English

Note: Includes bibliographical references (p. 129-141)

Field Date: The date the researcher conducted the fieldwork or archival research that produced the document 2000-2001

Evaluation: In this alphanumeric code, the first part designates the type of person writing the document, e.g. Ethnographer, Missionary, Archaeologist, Folklorist, Linguist, Indigene, and so on. The second part is a ranking done by HRAF anthropologists based on the strength of the source material on a scale of 1 to 5, as follows: 1 - poor; 2 - fair; 3 - good, useful data, but not uniformly excellent; 4 - excellent secondary data; 5 - excellent primary data Archaeologist - 4, 5

Analyst: The HRAF anthropologist who subject indexed the document and prepared other materials for the eHRAF culture/tradition collection. Sarah Berry; 2019

Coverage Date: The date or dates that the information in the document pertains to (often not the same as the field date). 6900-5000 BP

Coverage Place: Location of the research culture or tradition (often a smaller unit such as a band, community, or archaeological site) Xipo, Lingbao, Henan, China

LCSH: Library of Congress Subject Headings Yangshao culture


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