Pailes, Richard Allen, 1932-. An archaeological reconnaissance of southern Sonora and reconsideration of the Rio Sonora culture

Table of Contents

Publication Information

Chapter I Introduction: The Problem

Chapter Ii The Physical Geography




Chapter Iii Peoples And Languages

Chapter Iv Summary Of Archaeological Research In Northwestern Mexico

Archaeological History

The Mesoamerican Frontier

Northwest Mexico

Chapter V The Site Survey

Survey Methodology

Survey Techniques

System Of Site Designation

Description Of Localities And Sites

The Lower Foothills

Cuchujaqui Dam Locality (map 7)

Techuare Locality (map 8)

Reparo-mezquite Locality (map 9)

El Salado-palo Verde Locality (map 9)

Topizuelas Locality (map 10)

La Colorada-isleta Locality (map 11)

The Upper Foothills

Sabina Locality (map 12)

Alamos Locality (map 13)

Ubalamos Locality (map 14)

Rancho San Pedro Locality (map 15)

Tobelo Locality (map 16)

Los Tangues Locality (map 17)

Cochibampo Locality (map 18)

Techobampo Locality (map 19)

San Bernardo Locality (map 20)

Lowland Margins

Venadito Locality (map 21)

Miscellaneous Sites

Chapter Vi Excavations

Excavations At Ye 27-2


Functional Interpretation Of Features

Ceramic Distributions

Minor Artifacts

Excavations At Cueva De Colmena (xe 78–1)

Ceramic Distribution


Faunal Remains

Radiocarbon Dating

Chapter Vii Ceramics

A Consideration Of Ceramic Typology

Artificial Types Vs. Inherent Types

The Relationship Of Types To Native Taxonomies

Culture Change As Reflected In Artifactual Remains

Textured Pottery

Red Ware Pottery

Brown Ware Pottery

Intrusive Pottery

Huatabampo Brown

Miscellaneous Brown And Red Ware Sherds

Decorated Intrusive Sherds

Historic Period Pottery

San Miguel Ware

Unnamed Historic Plain Ware

Historic Red-on-brown

Unidentified Plain Sherds

Chapter Viii Artifacts Other Than Pottery

Ceramic Artifacts

Cruciform Objects

Projectile Points

Bifacial Edge Blades

Unifacial Edge Blades

Food Grinding Implements

Mortars And Stone Bowls

Axes And Celts

Objects Of Slaty Shale

Stone Balls

Pitted Cobbles Or Pebbles


Shaft Abrader

Stone Pipe

Artifacts Of Bone And Antler

Artifacts Of Marine Shell

Chapter Ix A Chronology Of The Southern Sonoran Foothills

The Cuchujaqui Phase

The Río Sonora Culture

The Batacosa Phase

The Huatabampo Complex

The Guasave Phase

Chapter X Summary Of Cultural Complexes

Lithic And Archaic Stages

Formative Stage

Batacosa-cuchujaqui Phases

Ethnic Identification

The Río Sonora Culture

Mogollon And Casas Grandes Relationships

Hohokam Relationships

Trincheras Relationships

Huatabampo Relationships

Tacuichamona Relationships

Loma San Gabriel Relationships

Mesoamerican Frontier Relationships

Ethnic Identification

Chapter Xi Mesoamerican-southwestern Contacts

Chapter Xii Summary And Conclusions



Appendix A Description Of Sites

Cuchujaqui Dam Locality (map 7)

Ye 22-1

Ye 22-2

Ye 22-3

Ye 22-4

Ye 22-5

Techuare Locality (map 8)

Ye 23-2

Ye 23-3

Reparo-mezquite Locality (map 9)

Ye 23-1

Ye 24-2

Ye 24-3

Ye 24-4

Ye 24-5

El Salado-palo Verde Locality (map 9)

Ye 14-1

Ye 14-2

Ye 14-3

Ye 14-4

Ye 14-5

Ye 14-6

Ye 24-1

Topizuelas Locality (map 10)

Ye 15-1

Ye 15-2

Ye 15-3

Ye 15-4

Ye 15-5

Ye 15-6

Ye 15-7

Ye 15-8

Ye 15-9

La Colorada-isleta Locality (map 11)

Ye 06-1

Ye 06-2

Ye 06-3

Ye 07-1

Ye 07-2

Ye 07-3

Ye 07-4

Ye 07-5

Ye 07-6

Ye 07-7

Ye 07-8

Ye 07-9

Ye 07-10

Ye 07-11

Ye 07-12

Ye 07-13

Ye 07-14

Ye 07-15

Ye 07-16

Sabina Locality (map 12)

Ye 27-1

Ye 27-2

Ye 27-3

Ye 27-4

Alamos Locality (map 13)

Ye 08-1

Ye 08-2

Ye 09-1

Ye 09-2

Ye 09-3

Ye 09-4

Ye 09-5

Ye 09-6

Ye 09-7

Ye 09-8

Ye 09-9

Ubalamos Locality (map 14)

Ye 18-1

Ye 18-2

Rancho San Pedro Locality (map 15)

Ye 29-1

Ye 29-2

Ye 29-3

Ye 29-4

Tobelo Locality (map 16)

Yf 00-1

Yf 00-2

Yf 00-3

Yf 00-4

Yf 00-8

Los Tanques Locality (map 17)

Yf 00-5

Yf 00-6

Yf 00-7

Yf 01-3

Yf 01-4

Yf 01-5

Cochibampo Locality (map 18)

Yf 10-1

Yf 10-2

Yf 10-3

Yf 10-4

Yf 10-5

Yf 10-6

Yf 10-7

Yf 10-8

Yf 11-3

Ye 09-10 (cerro De Los Gentiles)

Ye 19-1

Techobampo Locality (map 19)

Yf 01-1

Yf 01-2

Yf 11-1

Yf 11-2

Yf 12-1

Yf 12-2

Yf 12-3

Yf 12-4

Yf 12-5

Yf 12-6

Yf 02-1

San Bernardo Locality (map 20)

Yf 03-1

Yf 04-1

Yf 12-7

Yf 13-1

Yf 13-2

Yf 13-3

Yf 13-4

Yf 13-5

Yf 13-6

Yf 13-7

Venadito Locality (map 21)

Xe 78-2

Xe 78-3

Xe 88-1

Miscellaneous Sites (map 22)

Xe 64-1

Xe 79-1

Xe 99-1

Xf 90-1

Appendix B Artifact Descriptions

Ceramic Objects Other Than Pottery

Modeled Spindle Whorls : 4

Ceramic Cylinder Stamp : 1

Whistles : 2

Perforated Sherd Discs : 8

Unperforated Sherd Discs : 28

Miscellaneous Utilized Sherds : 7

Ceramic Bead : 1

Miscellaneous Ceramic Objects : 5

Artifacts Of Stone

Cruciform Objects : 3

Projectile Points : 16

Edge Blades, Bifacial : 43

Edge Blades, Unifacial : 42

Overhanging Manos For Use On Flat-slab Metates

Non-overhanging Manos For Use On Flat-slab Metates : 30

Two-hand Manos Used In Shallow Basin And/or Trough Metates : 64

One-hand Manos : 172

Unclassifiable Mano Fragments : 155

Metate And Milling Bases : 139

Unclassifiable Metate Fragments : 54

Mortars And/or Stone Bowls : 7

Axes And Celts : 24 (table Xxxiv)

Objects Of Slaty-shale : 26

Stone Balls : 4

Pitted Cobbles : 3 (plate 15, G–h)

Crystals : 8

Shaft Abrader : 1 (plate 15, K)

Stone Pipe : 1

Artifacts Of Bone And Antler

Bone Awls : 3 (plate 16, F)

Antler Tine : 2

Bone Disc : 1

Artifacts Of Marine Shell

Large Ring Fragments (plate 17 F–i): 14

Cut Shell “effigies” (plate 17 C): 2

Shell Bead (plate 17 D)

Shell Earrings (plate 17 D): 2

Shell Necklace (plate 17 B):

Gastropod Shells (plate 17 E):

Whole-shell Scoop :

Manufacturing Debris (plate 17 J–k):

Non-descript Shell Fragments :

Appendix C Archaeological Pollen Studies In Western Sonora

Research Design

A. Field Operations

B. Laboratory Operations

Surface Sample Studies

Subsurface Sample Studies


Vita Graduate School Southern Illinois University

Cross References

Publication Information

Paragraph Subjects (OCM)

Publication Information The main body of the Publication Information page contains all the metadata that HRAF holds for that document.

Author: Author's name as listed in Library of Congress records

Title: An archaeological reconnaissance of southern Sonora and reconsideration of the Rio Sonora culture

Published By: Original publisher Ann Arbor, Mich.: University Microfilms. 1973 [1997 copy]. xiv, 537 p. ill.

By line: Author's name as appearing in the actual publication by Richard Allen Pailes

HRAF Publication Information: New Haven, Conn.: Human Relations Area Files, 2000. Computer File

Culture: Culture name from the Outline of World Cultures (OWC) with the alphanumberic OWC identifier in parenthesis. Huatabampo (NU75)

Subjects: Document-level OCM identifiers given by the anthropology subject indexers at HRAF Reviews and critiques (114); Comparative evidence (171); Prehistory (172); Acculturation and culture contact (177); Ceramic technology (323); Lithic industries (324); Utensils (415); Visual arts (5311); Typologies and classifications (914);

Abstract: Brief abstract written by HRAF anthropologists who have done the subject indexing for the document Pailes' dissertation descibes his archaeological reconnaissance in the western foothills of the Sierra Madre of southern Sonora and northern Sinaloa between the Rio Mayo and the Rio Fuerte. One hundred nineteen sites are discussed in the text. Two sites were also excavated: YE 27-2 and XE 78-1, Cueva de Colmena. Most of the sites belong to the following phases: the Batacosa phase, (approximately A.D. 200 to 700) which is found in the lower and the upper foothills of the project area; the Los Camotes phase (A.D. 700 to about 1050 to 1350) and the San Bernardo phase (about A.D. 1050 to 1350 to at least 1530) which are found in the upper foothills and make up the Rio Sonora culture in the project area; and the Cuchujaqui phase (A.D. 700 to 1530) of an unnamed culture which can be found in the lower foothills. Pailes speculates that the Cuchujaqui phase may be a foothill variant of the Huatabampo culture. He also believes the Huatabampo culture may have begun by A.D. 200. The Rio Sonora culture extends from the Mesoamerican frontier north to the international border. Pailes discusses the possible relationships and influences between the Rio Sonora culture and the adjoining cultures such as Mesoamerican ones to the south and Trincheras, Mogollon, and Hohokam to the north. He does this by comparing and contrasting ceramic styles, mano and metate types, stone tool types, and other less common artifacts such as spindle whorls and ceramic cylinder stamps. The area occupied by the Rio Sonora culture seems to have been a main diffusion corridor for Mesoamerican traits to reach the Mogollon and Hohokam, but the Rio Sonora culture remained largely unaffected by these traits. In the appendices appears a pollen analysis from several sites written by James Schoenwetter. The pollen study indicates there was a climatic fluctuation in the past from a wetter to a drier climate.

Document Number: HRAF's in-house numbering system derived from the processing order of documents 2

Document ID: HRAF's unique document identifier. The first part is the OWC identifier and the second part is the document number in three digits. nu75-002

Document Type: May include journal articles, essays, collections of essays, monographs or chapters/parts of monographs. Monograph

Language: Language that the document is written in English

Note: UM 73-23,708 Thesis (Ph.D.) -- Southern Illinois University, 1973 Includes bibliographical references (p. 438-454)

Field Date: The date the researcher conducted the fieldwork or archival research that produced the document not specified

Evaluation: In this alphanumeric code, the first part designates the type of person writing the document, e.g. Ethnographer, Missionary, Archaeologist, Folklorist, Linguist, Indigene, and so on. The second part is a ranking done by HRAF anthropologists based on the strength of the source material on a scale of 1 to 5, as follows: 1 - poor; 2 - fair; 3 - good, useful data, but not uniformly excellent; 4 - excellent secondary data; 5 - excellent primary data Archaeologist - 5

Analyst: The HRAF anthropologist who subject indexed the document and prepared other materials for the eHRAF culture/tradition collection. Sarah Berry ; 1998

Coverage Date: The date or dates that the information in the document pertains to (often not the same as the field date). 1800 BP-470 BP (A.D. 200 - 1530)

Coverage Place: Location of the research culture or tradition (often a smaller unit such as a band, community, or archaeological site) southern Sonora and northern Sinaloa, Mexico

LCSH: Library of Congress Subject Headings Indians of Mexico -- Antiquities


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