Henry, Donald O.. From foraging to agriculture: the Levant at the end of the Ice Age

Table of Contents

Publication Information

From Foraging To Agriculture

1 Changes: Causes And Consequences

A History Of Ideas

Childe's Contribution

Concentration On Fieldwork

Braidwood's Ecological Approach

The Role Of Climatic Change

Conflicts Between Notions And Evidence

Unilinear Versus Multilinear Evolution

Critical Review Of Key Notions And Models

Broad-spectrum Subsistence: Fact Or Fiction

Population Growth And Expansion

Resource Stress

2 An Alternative Explanation: A Composite Model

The First Transition: Ideas And Evidence

Evidence For Cereal Expansion

Evidence For Sedentism And Population Growth

The Second Transition: Ideas And Evidence

Population Pressure

Sensitivity To Environmental Changes

System Instability And Adoption Of New Strategies


3 Present And Past Environments

Physiographic Units

Coastal Plain

Mediterranean Hills

Levantine Rift System

Jordanian Plateau


Atmospheric Circulation

Regional Climatic Patterns


Mediterranean Environment

Irano-turanian Environment

Saharo-sindian Environment

Paleoclimates And Environments

Atmospheric Circulation And Paleoclimates

Paleoenvironmental Field Evidence


4 Archaeological Complexes Of The Levant: An Overview

Terminology And Systems Of Classification

Material Culture Classification: Theory

Material Culture Classification: Applied

Questions Of Scale

Questions Of Quantification

Categories Of Data

Material Culture Classification: Results

Mushabian Complex

Geometric Kebaran Complex

Natufian Complex

Scales Of Industries And Phases

Industries Of The Mushabian Complex

Phases Of The Mushabian Complex

Industries Of The Geometric Kebaran

Phases Of The Group Iv (hamran) Industry: Clarification

Industries Of The Natufian Complex

Phases Of The Natufian Industry

Stratigraphic Evidence And Radiocarbon Dates

Mushabian Complex

Geometric Kebaran And Natufian Complexes

Geographic Distribution

Summary Of Socioeconomic Classification


Culture Group


Material Culture Equivalences

5 The Mushabian Complex

Material Culture

Sinai Mushabian Industry

Negev Mushabian Industry

Madamaghan Industry

Mushabian Demography And Economy

Settlement Patterns: Range And Seasonality

Origin And External Relationships

6 The Geometric Kebaran Complex

Untitled Section: ...


Chronologic And Geographic Distributions


Population Movements

Material Culture

Group I Industry

Group Ii Industry

Group Iii Industry

Group Iv Industry

Economy, Demography, And Social Organization

Transhumance: Patterns Within And Between Sites

Annual Cycle Of Transhumance

Scales Of Ethnicity And Social Organization

Origin And Evolution Of The Geometric Kebaran

7 The Natufian Complex

Chronologic And Geographic Distributions

Material Culture

Chipped Stone Industry

Groundstone Artifacts

Worked Bone Artifacts

Decorative, Ornamental, And Art Objects

Mortuary Patterns, Human Osteology, And Social Organization


Economic Evidence



Demographic Data

Settlement Pattern

Post-natufian Societies

Harifian Industry

Pre-pottery Neolithic

Summary And Conclusions

8 Considering A Universal Cause For Agriculture

Conditions That Were Necessary

Emergence Of A Milling Technology

Expansion Of Thermophilous Plants

Possible Genetic And Physiological Changes

Evidence From The Near East

Evidence On A Worldwide Scale

Conditions That Were Sufficient

Publication Information

Paragraph Subjects (OCM)

Publication Information The main body of the Publication Information page contains all the metadata that HRAF holds for that document.

Author: Author's name as listed in Library of Congress records

Title: From foraging to agriculture: the Levant at the end of the Ice Age

Published By: Original publisher Philadelphia: University of Philidelphia Press. 1989. xx, 277 p.

By line: Author's name as appearing in the actual publication Donald O. Henry

HRAF Publication Information: New Haven, Conn.: Human Relations Area Files, 2009. Computer File

Culture: Culture name from the Outline of World Cultures (OWC) with the alphanumberic OWC identifier in parenthesis. Epipaleolithic (M080)

Subjects: Document-level OCM identifiers given by the anthropology subject indexers at HRAF Sociocultural trends (178); Production and supply (433); Collecting (222); Identification (101); Geography (130);

Abstract: Brief abstract written by HRAF anthropologists who have done the subject indexing for the document Henry takes a closer look at the archaeological data for the Epipaleolithic to describe the emergence of the Natufian tradition and to propose a new theory as to why the Natufians, who were complex foragers, began agriculture at the end of the time period. He states, 'Essentially two conditions were necessary for the development of plant cultivation: the technology for collection, processing, and storage; and the presence of potential domesticates in economically viable settings.' And it is important that '…the technology was in place before it was applied to intensive exploitation of plants…' (page 231). He also sees the Natufians turning to agriculture as one way to respond to the environmental changes that happened at the start of the Holocene. Henry examines others' theories as to the origins of agriculture to show where they do not fit the data. In support of his theory he summarizes the Mushabian Complex, the Geometric Kebaran Complex, the Natufian Complex and the Harifian Industry.

Document Number: HRAF's in-house numbering system derived from the processing order of documents 6

Document ID: HRAF's unique document identifier. The first part is the OWC identifier and the second part is the document number in three digits. m080-006

Document Type: May include journal articles, essays, collections of essays, monographs or chapters/parts of monographs. Monograph

Language: Language that the document is written in English

Note: Includes bibliographical references (p. 237-257)

Field Date: The date the researcher conducted the fieldwork or archival research that produced the document 1972-1984

Evaluation: In this alphanumeric code, the first part designates the type of person writing the document, e.g. Ethnographer, Missionary, Archaeologist, Folklorist, Linguist, Indigene, and so on. The second part is a ranking done by HRAF anthropologists based on the strength of the source material on a scale of 1 to 5, as follows: 1 - poor; 2 - fair; 3 - good, useful data, but not uniformly excellent; 4 - excellent secondary data; 5 - excellent primary data Archaeologist-4, 5

Analyst: The HRAF anthropologist who subject indexed the document and prepared other materials for the eHRAF culture/tradition collection. Sarah Berry; 2007

Coverage Date: The date or dates that the information in the document pertains to (often not the same as the field date). 14,500 BP-10,100 BP

Coverage Place: Location of the research culture or tradition (often a smaller unit such as a band, community, or archaeological site) Egypt, Israel, Jordon, Lebanon, Palestinian Autonomous Areas, and Syria

LCSH: Library of Congress Subject Headings Neolithic period--Middle East/Agriculture, Prehistoric--Middle East/Paleoclimatology--Middle East/Middle East--Antiquities


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