Publication Information The main body of the Publication Information page contains all the metadata that HRAF holds for that document.
Author: Author's name as listed in Library of Congress records
Henry, Donald O.
From foraging to agriculture: the Levant at the end of the Ice Age
Published By: Original publisher
Philadelphia: University of Philidelphia Press. 1989. xx, 277 p.
By line: Author's name as appearing in the actual publication
Donald O. Henry
HRAF Publication Information: New Haven, Conn.:
Human Relations Area Files, 2009. Computer File
Culture: Culture name from the Outline of World Cultures (OWC) with the alphanumberic OWC identifier in parenthesis.
Subjects: Document-level OCM identifiers given by the anthropology subject indexers at HRAF
Sociocultural trends (178);
Production and supply (433);
Abstract: Brief abstract written by HRAF anthropologists who have done the subject indexing for the document
Henry takes a closer look at the archaeological data for the Epipaleolithic to describe the emergence of the Natufian tradition and to propose a new theory as to why the Natufians, who were complex foragers, began agriculture at the end of the time period. He states, 'Essentially two conditions were necessary for the development of plant cultivation: the technology for collection, processing, and storage; and the presence of potential domesticates in economically viable settings.' And it is important that '…the technology was in place before it was applied to intensive exploitation of plants…' (page 231). He also sees the Natufians turning to agriculture as one way to respond to the environmental changes that happened at the start of the Holocene. Henry examines others' theories as to the origins of agriculture to show where they do not fit the data. In support of his theory he summarizes the Mushabian Complex, the Geometric Kebaran Complex, the Natufian Complex and the Harifian Industry.
Document Number: HRAF's in-house numbering system derived from the processing order of documents
Document ID: HRAF's unique document identifier. The first part is the OWC identifier and the second part is the document number in three digits.
Document Type: May include journal articles, essays, collections of essays, monographs or chapters/parts of monographs.
Language: Language that the document is written in
Includes bibliographical references (p. 237-257)
Field Date: The date the researcher conducted the fieldwork or archival research that produced the document
Evaluation: In this alphanumeric code, the first part designates the type of person writing the document, e.g. Ethnographer, Missionary, Archaeologist, Folklorist, Linguist, Indigene, and so on. The second part is a ranking done by HRAF anthropologists based on the strength of the source material on a scale of 1 to 5, as follows: 1 - poor; 2 - fair; 3 - good, useful data, but not uniformly excellent; 4 - excellent secondary data; 5 - excellent primary data
Analyst: The HRAF anthropologist who subject indexed the document and prepared other materials for the eHRAF culture/tradition collection.
Sarah Berry; 2007
Coverage Date: The date or dates that the information in the document pertains to (often not the same as the field date).
14,500 BP-10,100 BP
Coverage Place: Location of the research culture or tradition (often a smaller unit such as a band, community, or archaeological site)
Egypt, Israel, Jordon, Lebanon, Palestinian Autonomous Areas, and Syria
LCSH: Library of Congress Subject Headings
Neolithic period--Middle East/Agriculture, Prehistoric--Middle East/Paleoclimatology--Middle East/Middle East--Antiquities