Hurley, William Michael. An analysis of effigy mound complexes in Wisconsin

Table of Contents

Publication Information

I Introduction

Ii Previous Effigy Mound Research

(1) 1836 To 1919

(2) 1919 To 1956

Iii Bigelow Site (47-pt-29-1 And 47-pt-29-2): Location, Description, And Excavation Procedure


Mounds At 47-pt-29-2

Mound N (fig. 6)

Mound M (see Fig. 5)

Mound L (fig. 7)

Areas O And P (figs. 5 And 8)

Area K (fig. 5)

Mound S (fig. 9)

Mound B (fig. 10)

Mound A (pl. 2, Figs. 12–15)

Mound Q (fig. 16)

Areas J And I (fig. 5 And Dixon, Blake, And Scribner, 1956:66–69)

Mound R (fig. 5 And Pl. 3)

Mounds C Through H (fig. 5)

Non-mound Soils And Habitations At 47-pt-29-2


Mound 13 (figs. 18 And 19)

Mound 1 (fig. 20)

Mound 2 (fig. 20)

Mound 3 (fig. 20)

Mound 14 (fig. 20)

Mound 4 (figs. 20 And 21)

Mound 5 (fig. 20)

Mound 6 (fig. 20)

Mound 7 (fig. 20)

Mound 8 (fig. 20)

Mound 9 (figs. 20, 22, And 23)

Mound 10 (fig. 20)

Mound 11 (fig. 20)

Mound 12 (fig. 20)

Non-mound Soils At 47-pt-29-1

Sub-mound Soils At 47-pt-29-1

Iv Bigelow Site Material Culture

Cord Twist: Analysis And Notation

Uncollared Ceramics

Madison Ware

Madison Cord Impressed

Madison Fabric Impressed

Madison Folded Lip (pls. 4 And 5b)

Madison Plain (pls. 9 And 10)

Madison Punctated (pl. 10:a, E)

Leland Cord-marked (not Illustrated)

Collared Ceramics

Aztalan Collared (pl. 11:a–c)

Hahn Cord Impressed (pl. 11:d)

Point Sauble Collared (pl. 11:e, F)

Unclassified Rimsherds

Body Sherds

Decorated Body Sherds

Undecorated Body Sherds

Lithic Artifacts

Projectile Points

Worked Bone


Historic Artifacts

V Bigelow Site Analyses

Analytical Procedures

Internal Comparisons

Vi Sanders Sites (47-wp-26 And 47-wp-70): Location, Description, And Excavation Procedure

Sanders Site 1: 47-wp-26

Excavation Procedures

Mounds At 47-wp-26

Mound 6

Areas 7 And 8

Area 9 (fig. 31)

Area 10 (fig. 31)

Mound 11 (figs. 31, 32)

Mounds 12 And 13 (figs. 31, 32)

Mound 14 (fig. 31)

Mound 15 (fig. 31)

Area 16 (fig. 31)

Mound 4 (figs. 31, 33)

Mound 5 (fig. 31)

Mound 1 (fig. 31, 34)

Mound 2 (fig. 31)

Mound 3 (figs. 31, 35)

Mounds 17 And 18 (fig. 31)

Mound 19 (fig. 31, 38)

Mound 20 (fig. 31)

Mound 21 (fig. 31)

Mound 22 (fig. 31)

Mound 23 (figs. 31, 39)

Mounds 26 And 27 (fig. 31)

Mounds 24 And 25 (fig. 31)

Mound 28 (figs. 31, 40)

Mound 29 (fig. 31)

Mound 30 (fig. 31)

Mound 31 (fig. 31)

Mound 32 (fig. 31)

Mound 33 (fig. 31)

The Village Area At 47-wp-26

Soils At 47-wp-26

Sanders Site 3: 47-wp-70

Vii Material Culture From The Sanders Site


Sister Creeks Punctated

Rocker Stamped

Shorewood Cord Roughened

Dane Incised

S □ Cord Twist.

Z □ Cord Twist.

S □ And Z □ Cord Twist.

Distorted Cord Surface.

Smooth Or Smoothed-over Cord-marked.

Dane Incised—type Variety Fingernail Impressed

S □ Cord Twist.

Smoothed Or Smoothed-over Cord-marked.

Madison Ware

S □—z □ Or Z □ Twisted Cord.

Z □ S □; Or S □ Twisted Cord.

S □ And Z □; Z □ And Z □ Or Z □; Or S □ And S □ Cord.

Miscellaneous Cord And Knot Impressed.

Fabric Impressed Ceramics

Double Oblique Twining (fig. 48)

Double Twining (fig. 49:a)


Spaced Weft-twining With Spaced Warps (pl. 22:k, L, N; Pl. 24:b; Fig. 49:d; Fig. 50; Fig. 51:a)

Spaced Weft-twining With Paired Spaced Warps (fig. 51:b)

Paired Spaced Weft-twining With Spaced Warps (pl. 22:d; Fig. 51:c; Pl. 26:d)

Paired Spaced Weft-twining With Paired Spaced Warps (fig. 51:d)

Spaced Weft-twining With Fixed Knots And Spaced Warps

Spaced Weft-twining With Spaced Warps And Accessory Cords (fig. 52:a, B, C, D)

Spaced Weft-twining With Paired Spaced Warps And Accessory Cords (pl. 22:m; Pl. 23:h; Fig. 53:a, B)

Spaced Oblique Weft-twining With Spaced Warps (pl. 22:i; Pl. 24:c; Fig. 53:c)

Spaced Oblique Weft-twining With Spaced Warps And Accessory Cords (fig. 54:a)

Spaced Oblique Weft-twining With Spaced Warps And Suspended Knots

Spaced Horizontal And Oblique Weft-twining With Spaced Warps (pl. 22:c, G, H; Pl. 23:d, E; Fig. 54:b; Fig. 55:a)

Spaced Horizontal And Oblique Weft-twining With Paired, Spaced Warps (pl. 23:f; Fig. 55:b)

Spaced Horizontal And Oblique Weft-twining With Spaced Warps And Fixed Knotted Loops (pl. 22:a; Pl. 24:d; Fig. 56:a)

Warp-twining (fig. 57:a)

Spaced Warp-twining With Suspended Cords (fig. 57:b)

Spaced Warp-twining With Single Spaced Wefts And Fixed Cords (fig. 57:d)

Madison Folded Lip

S □ Or Z □ Cord Twist

Z □ Or S □ Cord Twist

No Discernible Cord Twist

Fabric Impressed

Madison Plain (pl. 27 And Pl. 28)

S □, Z □, Or Z □ Cord Twist

Z □, S □, Or S □ Cord Twist

S □ And Z □; Z □ And Z □ Or Z □; Or S □ And S □

No Discernible Cord Twist

Madison Plain—type Varieties

Madison Plain, Variety Punctated

Madison Plain, Variety Jar

Madison Punctated

S □; Z □; Or Z □ Cord Twist.

Z □ Cord Twist

S □ And Z □; And Z □ And Z □ Cord Twist

Smooth Or Smoothed-over Cord Surface

Leland Cord-marked

S □ Cord Twist

Z □ Cord Twist

Smooth, Smoothed-over Cord-marked, Or Brushed Surface

Aztalan Collared

Hahn Cord Impressed

Point Sauble Collared

Heins Creek Corded Stamped

S □ Cord Twist

Z □ Cord Twist

S □ And Z □ Cord Twist

Smooth And Smoothed-over Cord-marked

Grand River Ware

Grand River Trailed

S □ Cord Twist

Z □ Cord Twist

Cord Wrapped Stick Impressed, Punctated, And Trailed

Grand River Plain

Eroded Rim Sherds

Decorated Body Sherds

Child's Vessel

Elbow Pipe

Clay Fragments

Undecorated Body Sherds

1a. S □ Cord Marked Body Sherds

1b. Z □ Cord-marked Body Sherds

Ceramic Bead (pl. 44:a)

Lithic Artifacts

Projectile Points

Waubesa Contracting Stem (pl. 39:c, D; Pl. 41:a)

Corner Notched (pl. 39:b)

Side Notched (pl. 39:a, B; Pl. 41:b)

Durst Stemmed (pl. 39:d; Pl. 40:a)

Triangular Projectile Points

Sanders Triangular (pl. 40:c, D)

Serrated Triangular Projectile Points (pl. 40:b, C, D)

Triangular (pl. 40:b, C, D; Pl. 41:c)

Drills (pl. 42:d)

Diminutive Scrapers (pl. 41:d; Pl. 42:a, B, C)

Scrapers (pl. 40:e)



Gravers (pl. 42:d)


Burin Spall Artifacts (pl. 41:e)


Worked Flakes

Polished Stone Artifacts

Ground Stone

Copper (pl. 44:b–l)

Copper Fragments



Historic Artifacts

Viii Sanders Sites Analyses

Ix The Effigy Mound Tradition

Early Effigy Mound (a.d. 300 To A.d. 700)

Middle Effigy Mound (a.d. 700 To A.d. 1100)

Late Effigy Mound (a.d. 1100 To A.d. 1642)

Publication Information

Paragraph Subjects (OCM)

Publication Information The main body of the Publication Information page contains all the metadata that HRAF holds for that document.

Author: Author's name as listed in Library of Congress records

Title: An analysis of effigy mound complexes in Wisconsin

Published By: Original publisher Ann Arbor: Museum of Anthropology, University of Michigan. 1975. xiii, 414 p., plates ill.

By line: Author's name as appearing in the actual publication by William M. Hurley

HRAF Publication Information: New Haven, Conn.: Human Relations Area Files, 2005. Computer File

Culture: Culture name from the Outline of World Cultures (OWC) with the alphanumberic OWC identifier in parenthesis. Eastern Late Woodland (NN67)

Subjects: Document-level OCM identifiers given by the anthropology subject indexers at HRAF Identification (101); Archaeological excavation methods (1210); Cordage (283); Woven and other interworked fabrics (286); Ceramic technology (323); Lithic industries (324); Miscellaneous structures (349); Weapons (411); General tools (412); Visual arts (5311); Chronologies and culture sequences (911); Cultural stratigraphy (912); Typologies and classifications (914); Archaeological inventories (915);

Abstract: Brief abstract written by HRAF anthropologists who have done the subject indexing for the document Hurley conducted field work at the Bigelow and the Sanders sites and analyzed the artifacts. The work was done as part of a doctoral dissertation. The Bigelow site contained only mounds while the Sanders site contained mounds and a village. Both sites date to the Middle Effigy Mound tradition. The artifacts are described, with the ceramics described in more detail, and some of the fabrics from the fabric impressed ceramics are reconstructed. Because of the number of radiocarbon dates (31) from these sites, Hurley was able to further date some of the ceramics. The material from these sites is then compared with other Effigy Mound material and a description of the the Effigy Mound tradition and its culture core is given, broken into Early, Middle and Late Effigy Mound. 'This study examines and assesses previous research conducted at Effigy Mound culture sites... Excavations conducted at two Effigy Mound culture sites ... yielded valuable information concerning the longevity of site occupation, the possible rate of mound construction, the cultural utilization of a location over a controlled time period, burial customs, settlement patterns, and the nature and extent of the associalted material culture. The [sites] … yielded a total of 55,414 artifacts from sites containing 56 mounds, three houses, 91 features, and 10 prehistoric burials.' (page 4).

Document Number: HRAF's in-house numbering system derived from the processing order of documents 6

Document ID: HRAF's unique document identifier. The first part is the OWC identifier and the second part is the document number in three digits. nn67-006

Document Type: May include journal articles, essays, collections of essays, monographs or chapters/parts of monographs. Monograph

Language: Language that the document is written in English

Note: Includes bibliographical references ( p. 401-414)

Field Date: The date the researcher conducted the fieldwork or archival research that produced the document 1965, 1966

Evaluation: In this alphanumeric code, the first part designates the type of person writing the document, e.g. Ethnographer, Missionary, Archaeologist, Folklorist, Linguist, Indigene, and so on. The second part is a ranking done by HRAF anthropologists based on the strength of the source material on a scale of 1 to 5, as follows: 1 - poor; 2 - fair; 3 - good, useful data, but not uniformly excellent; 4 - excellent secondary data; 5 - excellent primary data Archaeologist-4, 5

Analyst: The HRAF anthropologist who subject indexed the document and prepared other materials for the eHRAF culture/tradition collection. Sarah Berry ; 2004

Coverage Date: The date or dates that the information in the document pertains to (often not the same as the field date). 1330 BP-880 BP (670 A.D.-1120 A.D.)

Coverage Place: Location of the research culture or tradition (often a smaller unit such as a band, community, or archaeological site) Bigelow site (47Pt29-1 and 47Pt29-2) and Sanders site (47Wp26 and 47Wp70); Wisconsin, United States

LCSH: Library of Congress Subject Headings Woodland culture


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