Bense, Judith Ann, 1945-. The Cascade phase: a study in the effect of the altithermal on a cultural system

Table of Contents

Publication Information

Chapter 1 Introduction

The Altithermal

The Effect Of Climatic Change On Culture History

The Problem

The Altithermal In Southeastern Washington

The Cascade Phase

Chapter 2 The Bio-physical Framework: Geology, Chronology, And Environmental Reconstruction


Description Of The Area

Geology And Chronology Of Excavated Sites

Granite Point (45wt41)

Marmes Rockshelter (45fr50)

Thorn Thicket (45wt36)

Windust Caves (45fr46)

Tucannon (45c01)


Wexpúsnime (45ga61b)

Ash Cave (45ww61)




Votaw (45fr32)


Summary Of Geology And Chronology

Faunal Remains


Bony Fish





Insectivores And Rodents


Floral Remains

Summary Of Faunal Remains

Environmental Reconstruction

Chapter 3 The Cultural Framework: Definition Of The Cascade Phase


The Archaeological Phase

Artifact Analysis

The Artifact Inventory

Artifacts Characteristic Of The Windust Phase Associated With Cascade Phase Assemblages

Artifacts Characteristic Of Cultural Manifestations Outside The Lower Snake River Region Associated With The Cascade Phase

Artifacts Characteristic Of Later Cultural Manifestations Associated With The Cascade Phase

Technology Of The Cascade Phase

Occupational Features


Fire Pits

Storage Pits

Bone Concentrations

Stone Concentrations

Living Surfaces


Summary Of The Occupational Features

Statistical Comparison Of Components


The Tests

Robinson Index Of Agreement

Z Coefficient Of Correlation

Dendrogram Analysis

R-technique Ogive

Summary Of The Tests

Results Of Statistical Tests

Robinson Index Of Agreement

Z Coefficient Of Correlation

Dendrogram Analysis

Ogives And Rank Order

Set Intersection

Conclusions From Statistical Tests


The Old Cordilleran Culture

The Indian Well Phase

The “cold Springs” Phase

Summary Of The Comparisons

Summary Of Chapter 3

Chapter 4 The Culture And The Environment: A Model Of Interaction


Interaction Of Culture And Environment

Exploitative Economy

Settlement Pattern

Model Of Interaction

Chapter 5 A Final Statement: Climatic Change And Cultural Stability

Publication Information

Paragraph Subjects (OCM)

Publication Information The main body of the Publication Information page contains all the metadata that HRAF holds for that document.

Author: Author's name as listed in Library of Congress records

Title: The Cascade phase: a study in the effect of the altithermal on a cultural system

Published By: Original publisher Ann Arbor, Mich.: University Microfilms. 1972 [1999 copy]. xv, 214 p. ill.

By line: Author's name as appearing in the actual publication by Judith Ann Bense

HRAF Publication Information: New Haven, Conn.: Human Relations Area Files, 2001. Computer File

Culture: Culture name from the Outline of World Cultures (OWC) with the alphanumberic OWC identifier in parenthesis. Cascade (NR50)

Subjects: Document-level OCM identifiers given by the anthropology subject indexers at HRAF Theoretical orientation in research and its results (121); Organization and analysis of results of research (128); Climate (132); Cultural participation (184); Lithic industries (324); Weapons (411); General tools (412);

Abstract: Brief abstract written by HRAF anthropologists who have done the subject indexing for the document Bense examined "the assumed causal relationship between climatic change and cultural change," (page vi). To test the theory that a change in climate will force people to change and adapt their culture Bense studied artifacts from thirteen archaeological sites found along the lower Snake River that dated to the Cascade Phase (8000 to 5000 B.P.). The Cascade Phase occurs during the Altithermal, a dry climatic episode. Through statistical analyses of the artifacts she was able to show "there was no visible response of the Cascade Phase people," (page vii) to the change in climate as there was no change in their economy, settlement pattern, or artifact assemblages.

Document Number: HRAF's in-house numbering system derived from the processing order of documents 1

Document ID: HRAF's unique document identifier. The first part is the OWC identifier and the second part is the document number in three digits. nr50-001

Document Type: May include journal articles, essays, collections of essays, monographs or chapters/parts of monographs. Monograph

Language: Language that the document is written in English

Note: UM 72-31,259 Thesis (Ph.D.) -- Washington State University, 1972 Includes bibliographical references (p. 118-125) This document contains unreadable photographs/figures.

Field Date: The date the researcher conducted the fieldwork or archival research that produced the document no date

Evaluation: In this alphanumeric code, the first part designates the type of person writing the document, e.g. Ethnographer, Missionary, Archaeologist, Folklorist, Linguist, Indigene, and so on. The second part is a ranking done by HRAF anthropologists based on the strength of the source material on a scale of 1 to 5, as follows: 1 - poor; 2 - fair; 3 - good, useful data, but not uniformly excellent; 4 - excellent secondary data; 5 - excellent primary data Archaeologist - 4, 5

Analyst: The HRAF anthropologist who subject indexed the document and prepared other materials for the eHRAF culture/tradition collection. Sarah Berry ; 2000

Coverage Date: The date or dates that the information in the document pertains to (often not the same as the field date). 8000 BP-5000 BP

Coverage Place: Location of the research culture or tradition (often a smaller unit such as a band, community, or archaeological site) Lower Snake River Region; southeastern Washington; United States

LCSH: Library of Congress Subject Headings Indians of North America--Columbia Plateau--Antiqu


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