Anyon, Roger, 1952-. The Galaz ruin: a prehistoric Mimbres village in southwestern New Mexico

Table of Contents

Publication Information

1 Introduction

Research Design Of The Mimbres Foundation Excavations

Organization Of The Volume

2 History Of Archaeological Research In The Mimbres Region

A History Of Archaeological Research In The Mimbres Region

Excavations At Galaz

Excavation Techniques And Numbering Systems

The Southwest Museum Excavations

The University Of Minnesota Excavations

The Organization Of Fieldwork And Excavation Techniques


Extramural Areas


Bowls And Artifacts

Dating And Subsistence Information Recovery


The Numbering System

The Mimbres Foundation Excavations

3 Prehistoric Culture History And Physical Background Of Galaz

A Brief Culture History Of The Mogollon-mimbres Sequence

The Early Pithouse Period

The Late Pithouse Period

Georgetown Phase

San Francisco Phase

Three Circle Phase

The Classic Mimbres Period

The Postclassic Mimbres Period

The Black Mountain Phase

The Cliff Phase

The Galaz Site And Its Setting


Geology And Soils



Flora And Fauna


4 Excavations Of Late Pithouse Period Domestic Structures, A.d. 550–1000

Mimbres Foundation Excavation Strategy

Pithouses Excavated By The Mimbres Foundation

Unit 1: Pithouse 1

Unit 5: Pithouse 5

Unit 10: Pithouse 10

Unit 11: Pithouse 11

Unit 12: Pithouse 12

Unit 15: Pithouse 15

Unit 18: Pithouse 18

Unit 20

Unit 26: Pithouse 26

Unit 27: Pithouse 27

Unit 29: Pithouse 29

Unit 31: Pithouse 31

Unit 40: Pithouse 40

The Minnesota And Southwest Museum Pithouses.




Extramural Cysts From All Excavations

Unit 28

Cysts Excavated By The Minnesota Expedition

Cyst Discussion


5 Galaz Village In The Late Pithouse Period, A.d. 550–1000

Village Size And Density

Pithouse Use-life

Village Layout

Domestic Architecture

Trash Deposits


6 Classic Mimbres Period Architecture, A.d. 1000–1150

Mimbres Foundation Excavations

Unit 4: Room 4

The Minnesota And Southwest Museum Excavations

The South Room Cluster

The West Room Cluster

The North Room Cluster

The Northeast (looted) Room Cluster

The East Room Cluster


Abandonment And Postclassic Use

7 Communal And Ceremonial Structures, A.d. 550–1150

Communal Structures

Unit 8: Communal Structure 8

Communal Structure 42a

Communal Structure 73

The Development Of Communal Structures

Classic Mimbres Period Small Ceremonial Structures

Semisubterranean Kivas

A Discussion Of Semisubterranean Kivas

Large Surface Rooms

Walled Plazas

Open Unwalled Plazas

Summary And Conclusions

8 Postclassic Mimbres Occupation, A.d. 1150–1350

The Immediate Postclassic Mimbres Occupation

The Slab- And Adobe-walled Pueblo


Construction Sequence

Abandonment And Postabandonment


Room Function

Extramural Activity Areas

Interpretation And Comparisons

9 Ceramics: Description And Seriation

Ceramic Types And Descriptions

Previous Research

Temporal Changes In Mimbres Ceramics

Slipped And Painted Ware Seriation

Unslipped And Unpainted Ware Seriation

Factor Analysis Of Mimbres Sherds

Summary And Conclusion

10 Ceramics: Temporal And Functional Analysis

Temporal Placement Of The Galaz Pithouses

Functional Interpretation Of The Galaz Pithouses

Vessel Volume Determinations And Interpretations


The Data Base

Analysis Of Jars

Analysis Of Bowls

Temper Studies

Summary And Conclusions

11 Burials

Dating And Location Of The Galaz Burials

Factors Of Status Differentiation In Galaz Burials

Ceramic Grave Goods

Ornaments And Other Grave Goods

Ceramics Related To Other Grave Goods

Similarity Of Designs On Classic Mimbres Burial Vessels

Other Burial Variables


Spatial Distribution Of Burials

Status Differentiation


12 Demographic Considerations

Population And Growth Rate Estimates Based On Dwelling Counts

Growth Rate Estimates

Absolute Population Estimates

Population And Growth Rate Estimates Based On Burial Information

Population Estimates From Burial Counts

Growth Rate Estimates


14 Pollen Analysis

The Samples And Procedures

Analytic Framework And Analysis

The Pine/juniper Ratio

The Pine Percentage

The Grass/cheno-am Ratio

The Long-spine/short-spine Compositae Ratio

The Arboreal/nonarboreal Ratio

Modern Pollen Samples

Between-site Analysis: Prehistoric Pollen Samples

The P/j Ratio

The Pine Percentage

The Arboreal Pollen Percentage

The Grass/cheno-am Ratio

The Long-spine/short-spine Compositae Ratio

The Economic Pollens

Statistical Analysis

The Galaz Samples


15 Faunal Remains

Methods Of Recording And Analysis

Diachronic Change In Species Selection



Spatial Factors And Other Aspects Of Animal Procurement

Bone Elements, Age Characteristics, And Burned Bones


18 Subsistence And Adaptation

Modeling The Pithouse Period Adaptations


19 Artifact Descriptions And Discussion

Stone Palettes

Palette Descriptions

Material Type



Comparison With Hohokam Palettes

Stone Axes And Mauls

Axe Production

Stone “hoes”

Arrow Shaft Straighteners

Stone Bowls

Miscellaneous Stone Objects From Mimbres Foundation Excavations

Grinding Slabs And Mortars

Miscellaneous Worked Slabs

Polishing/rubbing Stones

Miscellaneous Stone Artifacts From The Minnesota Excavations

Ceramic Artifacts

Miniature Vessels And Miscellaneous Objects

Worked Sherds


Bone Tools

Description Of The Mimbres Foundation Bone Tools

Bone Tools From The Minnesota Excavations

Ornaments Of Shell And Stone



Shell And Turquoise Mosaics And Onlay

Red And Black Stone

Copper Bells

Crystals And Raw Materials


20 Summary And Conclusions

The Galaz Site



Demography And Burials


Trade And Interaction

The Galaz Community And Its Place Within The Mimbres Region

The Classic Mimbres Collapse

Publication Information

Paragraph Subjects (OCM)

Publication Information The main body of the Publication Information page contains all the metadata that HRAF holds for that document.

Author: Author's name as listed in Library of Congress records

Title: The Galaz ruin: a prehistoric Mimbres village in southwestern New Mexico

Published By: Original publisher Albuquerque: Maxwell Museum of Anthropology : University of New Mexico Press. 1984. xi, 612 p. ill.

By line: Author's name as appearing in the actual publication by Roger Anyon and Steven A. LeBlanc ; edited by Paula L. W. Sabloff

HRAF Publication Information: New Haven, Conn.: Human Relations Area Files, 2010. Computer File

Culture: Culture name from the Outline of World Cultures (OWC) with the alphanumberic OWC identifier in parenthesis. Mogollon (NT85)

Subjects: Document-level OCM identifiers given by the anthropology subject indexers at HRAF Culture summary (105); Structures (340); Ceramic technology (323); Reviews and critiques (114); Archaeological excavation methods (1210); Geography (130); Historical and archival research (127); Artifact and archive collections (119);

Abstract: Brief abstract written by HRAF anthropologists who have done the subject indexing for the document Anyon and LeBlanc conducted salvage excavations at Galaz in 1975 and 1976. The site had been excavated previously by the Southwest Museum of Los Angeles in 1927 and the University of Minnesota from 1929 to 1931. Galaz had also been extensively looted from 1931 to 1975. In fact in 1975 the site had been leased to a commercial looter who was searching for pottery. The Mimbres Foundation was able to negotiate with the people involved, the bulldozing was halted for one year, and the Foundation was allowed to conduct controlled excavations at the site from the summer of 1975 through the spring of 1976. Although the Classic Mimbres pueblo had been completely destroyed they were able to excavated the areas around it which meant they were excavating structures from the Late Pithouse period. As some of these pithouses were later used as trash dumps Anyon and LeBlanc were able to obtain a sample of trash from the Classic Mimbres period. The data they obtained from the new excavations was integrated with the previous excavations data as the Foundation also conducted archival research and artifact analysis on the museum collections, and examined the previous collections, field notes, and catalogs from Galaz. This document discusses the previous excavations at Galaz and in the Mimbres region, their excavations, a brief culture history of the Mogollon and the Mimbres Valley, the environmental setting, the architecture found, and their interpretations of the structures. In addition to the Late Pithouse period structures found the excavations also found a Postclassic pueblo and it is also described. The ceramics from all excavations are analyzed and this document presents information on the almost 1000 burials from Galaz along with some inferences about social organization. This document also presents the analyses of the palynological and faunal data and the artifacts that are neither chipped stone nor groundstone artifacts. Document nos. 24-26 present analyses on plant remains, and the chipped stone and groundstone artifacts. Anyon and LeBlanc provide plates of the entire collection of Mimbres painted vessels from Galaz at the end of the document and provide the provenience information for each bowl allowing the reader to determine which room or burial each bowl was from.

Document Number: HRAF's in-house numbering system derived from the processing order of documents 23

Document ID: HRAF's unique document identifier. The first part is the OWC identifier and the second part is the document number in three digits. nt85-023

Document Type: May include journal articles, essays, collections of essays, monographs or chapters/parts of monographs. Component part(s), monograph

Language: Language that the document is written in English

Note: Includes bibliographical references (p. 317-325)

Field Date: The date the researcher conducted the fieldwork or archival research that produced the document 1975-1976

Evaluation: In this alphanumeric code, the first part designates the type of person writing the document, e.g. Ethnographer, Missionary, Archaeologist, Folklorist, Linguist, Indigene, and so on. The second part is a ranking done by HRAF anthropologists based on the strength of the source material on a scale of 1 to 5, as follows: 1 - poor; 2 - fair; 3 - good, useful data, but not uniformly excellent; 4 - excellent secondary data; 5 - excellent primary data Archaeologists-4, 5

Analyst: The HRAF anthropologist who subject indexed the document and prepared other materials for the eHRAF culture/tradition collection. Sarah Berry; 2010

Coverage Date: The date or dates that the information in the document pertains to (often not the same as the field date). 1450 BP-650 BP (AD 550-AD 1350)

Coverage Place: Location of the research culture or tradition (often a smaller unit such as a band, community, or archaeological site) Galaz, New Mexico, United States

LCSH: Library of Congress Subject Headings Mimbres culture//Galaz Site (N.M.)


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