Woosley, Anne I.. Mimbres mogollon archaeology: Charles C. Di Peso's excavations at Wind Mountain

Table of Contents

Publication Information

Mimbres Mogollon Archaeology


Wind Mountain And The Gran Chichimeca

Cultural Dynamics In An Economic Framework

History Of Work

Volume Organization

1 Background To Research Explorations And Archaeological Investigations

Early Explorations

Archaeological Work Of The Upper Gila Region

The Upper Gila In Relation To Nearby Regions

Wind Mountain And Mogollon Archaeology

2 Wind Mountain And Its Environs




Water Resources



3 Chronological Considerations

Tree-ring Analysis

Obsidian Hydration Results

Radiocarbon Dating

Archaeomagnetic Date Ranges

Evaluating The Temporal Placement Of Structures

Early Date Ranges

Late Date Ranges

Suggested Temporal Placement Of Wind Mountain Structures

Period And Phase Designations

The Early Pit House Period

The Late Pit House Period

Pit House To Pueblo Transition: The Mangas Phase

The Mimbres Phase

Regional Mogollon Chronologies

The San Francisco/reserve Region

The Mimbres Valley

The Upper Gila

Di Peso's Gran Chichimecan Time Horizon

Summary Remarks

4 Wind Mountain Architecture

Part 1 Definition And Detail

Secular Domestic Structures

Type I House

Type Ii House

Type Iii House

Type Iv House

Type V House

Type Vi House

Community Structures

Type A Community Structure

Type B Community Structure

Type C Community Structure

Type D Community Structure

Type E Community Structure

Type F Community Structure

Type G Community Structure

Secondary Architectural Features



Pit Ovens

Puddling Pits

Work Areas

Stone Pavements

Architectural Elements

Discussion And Interpretations

Architectural Trends

Orientation Of Structures

Intrasite Variability: Domestic Versus Community Structures

Architectural Development And Donor-recipient Contact

Part 2 Architectural Units Of The Wind Mountain Site

Descriptions And Primary Internal Stratigraphy

Organization Of Data

Pit Structures Of The Wind Mountain Locus

House A (figure 4.32)

House B (b1 And B2) (figures 4.33 And 4.34)

House C (figure 4.35)

House D (refer To Figures 4.9 And 4.10)

House E (figures 4.36 And 4.37)

House F (figure 4.38)

House G (figure 4.39)

House H (figure 4.40)

House I (figure 4.42)

House J (refer To Figure 4.40)

House K (figure 4.43)

House L (figure 4.44)

House M (figure 4.46)

House N (figure 4.47)

House O (figure 4.47)

House P (p1 And P2) (figure 4.48)

House Q (figure 4.50)

House R (refer To Figure 4.5)

House S (figure 4.51)

House T (figure 4.52)

House U (figure 4.53)

House V (refer To Figures 4.23 And 4.24)

House W (figure 4.55; Refer To Figure 4.8)

House X (figure 4.56; Refer To Figures 4.16 And 4.17)

House Y (figures 4.57 And 4.58)

House Z (figure 4.59)

House Aa (figure 4.60; Refer To Figure 4.58)

House Bb (figure 4.61)

House Cc (figure 4.61)

House Dd (figure 4.62)

House Ee (figure 4.63)

House Ff (figure 4.64)

House Gg (figures 4.65 And 4.66)

House Hh (figure 4.67)

House Ii (figure 4.67)

House Jj (figure 4.67)

House Kk (figure 4.68)

House Ll (figure 4.69)

House Mm (figure 4.69)

House Nn (figure 4.70)

House Oo (figures 4.72 And 4.73)

House Pp (figure 4.74)

House Qq (figure 4.75; Refer To Figure 4.4)

House Rr (figure 4.76)

House Ss (refer To Figure 4.7)

House Tt (figure 4.77)

House Uu (figure 4.78)

House Vv (figure 4.79)

House Ww (refer To Figures 4.6 And 4.31)

House Xx (refer To Figure 4.18)

House Yy (figure 4.80)

House Zz (figure 4.81)

House Ab (figure 4.82)

House Ac (figure 4.83)

House Ad (figure 4.85)

House Ae (figure 4.85)

House Af (figure 4.86)

House Ag (figures 4.87 And 4.88)

House Ah (figures 4.87 And 4.88)

House Ai (figure 4.89)

House Aj (figure 4.90)

House Ak (refer To Figures 4.19, 4.20, And 4.88)

House Al (figure 4.91)

House Am (figure 4.92)

House An (figure 4.93)

House Ao (figure 4.94)

House Ap (figure 4.95)

House Aq (figure 4.96)

Surface (and Semisubterranean) Rooms Of The Wind Mountain Locus

Room 1 (figures 4.97 And 4.98)

Room 2 (figure 4.99)

Room 3 (figure 4.100; Refer To Figure 4.25)

Room 4 (figure 4.103)

Room 5 (figures 4.104 And 4.105; Refer To Figure 4.12)

Room 6 (figures 4.105 And 4.106; Refer To Figure 4.12)

Room 7 (refer To Figures 4.21 And 4.22)

Room 8 (figure 4.107; Refer To Figure 4.11)

Room 9 (figure 4.108)

Room 10 (figure 4.109)

Room 11 (figure 4.110)

Room 12 (figure 4.111)

Room 13 (figure 4.112)

Room 14 (figure 4.113)

Room 15 (figure 4.114)

Room 16 (figure 4.116)

Pit Structures Of The Ridout Locus

House A (figure 4.117)

House B (figure 4.118)

House C (figures 4.119 And 4.120)

House D (figure 4.121)

House E (figure 4.122)

House F (refer To Figure 4.15)

House G (refer To Figures 4.3 And 4.122)

House H (figure 4.123)

House I (refer To Figure 4.122)

House J (figure 4.124)

House K (figure 4.125)

5 Introduction To Material Culture Approach To Typology

6 Ceramics

Origin Of Mogollon Ceramics

Wind Mountain Pottery

Alma Series (haury 1936b:32–34, 35, 38–40; Martin 1940, 1943).

San Francisco Red (haury 1936b 28–31; Colton And Hargrave 1937:48–49); Syn. Wind Mountain Red, Ridout Red (di Peso Wind Mountain Files, Amerind Foundation).

San Francisco Red Patterned (proposed New Type).

Mogollon Red-on-brown (haury 1936b:10–17; Colton And Hargrave 1937:47–48).

Three Circle Red-on-white (haury 1936b 18–21; Martin And Rinaldo 1950a:362–369).

Three Circle Neck Corrugated (haury 1936b:36–37).

Boldface Black-on-white (cosgrove And Cosgrove 1932:76; Haury 1936b:22–27); Syn. Mangus Black-on-white (gladwin And Gladwin 1934:18); New Type (proposed), Wind Mountain Black-on-white (di Peso Wind Mountain Files, Amerind Foundation); Revised, Style I And Style Ii (scott 1983; Anyon And Leblanc 1984).

Mimbres Classic Black-on-white (cosgrove And Cosgrove 1932:72–76); Syn. Classic Mimbres Black-on-white (gladwin And Gladwin 1931); Revised, Style Iii (scott 1983; Anyon And Leblanc 1984).

Mimbres Polychrome (cosgrove And Cosgrove 1932:79).

Mimbres Corrugated (cosgrove And Cosgrove 1932:83–85; Hawley 1936:64).

The Wind Mountain Sherd Assemblage

Whole And Fragmentary Vessels From Wind Mountain

Vessels Associated With Structures

Vessels In Secondary Features

Vessels Accompanying Burials

Miniature Vessels

Miscellaneous Ceramic Objects

Modeled Effigy

Worked Sherds

Solid Modeled Artifacts

Pottery Making Objects

Exogenous Ceramics

The San Francisco/reserve Region

The Gila Basin Or Hohokam Wares

The Little Colorado/chaco Region

The Mesa Verde Region

The Jornada Region

Intrusive Ceramics From The South

Wind Mountain Ceramic Assemblage Discussion

Design Trends

Vessel Form And Function

Wind Mountain Ceramics In Regional Perspective

The View North And West

The View North, West, And East

The View South

7 The Lithic Assemblage Ground And Chipped Stone

Ground Stone

Nether Stones: Metates And Grinding Slabs


Rubbing Stones

Mortars And Pestles

Palettes And Proto-palettes

Grooved Abrading Stones

Miscellaneous Nether Stones


Polishing Stones

Axes And Mauls

Miscellaneous Upper Pulverizers

Disks/spindle Whorls

Chipped Stone



Core Tools

Flake Tools

Shatter Tools

Drills And Projectile Points

Discussion And Summary Remarks

8 Southern Inspiration And Economic Enterprise

The Socioreligious Material Inventory




Stone Fetishes And Counters

Socioreligious Worked Sherds


Miscellaneous Socioreligious Artifacts

Personal Ornamentation

Ornaments Of Stone

Ornaments Of Shell

Miscellaneous Ornaments

Raw Minerals And Stone

9 Wind Mountain Mortuary Data



Funerary Accompaniments

Wind Mountain Mortuary Patterns

Comparative Mogollon Mortuary Patterns

10 Animal Burials

Dogs: Canis Spp.

Bear: Ursus Sp.

Turkeys: Meleagris Gallopavo

Golden Eagles: Aquila Chrysaetos

Hawks: Buteo Spp.

Mourning Dove: Zenaida Macroura

Scarlet Macaw: Ara Macao

11 Closing Thoughts And Perspectives On Wind Mountain Prehistory

External Relationships

Economic Enterprise

Hohokam And Wind Mountain Contacts

The Evolution Of Mimbres Mogollon Culture

The Pit House Period

The Pueblo Period

Broad-based Mogollon Interaction

Publication Information

Paragraph Subjects (OCM)

Publication Information The main body of the Publication Information page contains all the metadata that HRAF holds for that document.

Author: Author's name as listed in Library of Congress records

Title: Mimbres mogollon archaeology: Charles C. Di Peso's excavations at Wind Mountain

Published By: Original publisher Dragoon, Ariz. ; Albuquerque: Amerind Foundation ; University of New Mexico Press. 1996. xx, 463 p. ill., maps

By line: Author's name as appearing in the actual publication Anne I. Woosley and Allan J. McIntyre

HRAF Publication Information: New Haven, Conn.: Human Relations Area Files, 2010. Computer File

Culture: Culture name from the Outline of World Cultures (OWC) with the alphanumberic OWC identifier in parenthesis. Mogollon (NT85)

Subjects: Document-level OCM identifiers given by the anthropology subject indexers at HRAF

Abstract: Brief abstract written by HRAF anthropologists who have done the subject indexing for the document The Wind Mountain site was Charles Di Peso's last archaeological project. With the analysis of his material largely unfinished at the time of his death, this document represents the cooperative effort of its authors and contributors to bring Di Peso's work on an Upper Gila Mimbres Mogollon settlement to fruition (p.1). This work is divided into two parts, part 1 provides the historical and physical context for the site, followed by the chronology of Wind Mountain which is then compared with regional Mogollon temporal frameworks for correlations and divergences. Part 1 concludes with a study of Wind Mountain architecture. Part 2 presents a detailed description of each architectural structure discussed previously; its internal stratigraphy, and associated features. This is followed by a short discussion of Di Peso's approach to classification schemes. And their application to the lithic assemblage found at the site, as well as to house, hearth types, and socioreligious objects. The final sections of part 2 deals with the Wind Mountain burial of the dead, animal burials, the work concluding with closing thoughts on the site itself and perspectives on Mogollon prehistory.

Document Number: HRAF's in-house numbering system derived from the processing order of documents 27

Document ID: HRAF's unique document identifier. The first part is the OWC identifier and the second part is the document number in three digits. nt85-027

Document Type: May include journal articles, essays, collections of essays, monographs or chapters/parts of monographs. Component part(s), monograph

Language: Language that the document is written in English

Note: Includes bibliographical references (p. 441-454) and index

Field Date: The date the researcher conducted the fieldwork or archival research that produced the document 1977-1979

Evaluation: In this alphanumeric code, the first part designates the type of person writing the document, e.g. Ethnographer, Missionary, Archaeologist, Folklorist, Linguist, Indigene, and so on. The second part is a ranking done by HRAF anthropologists based on the strength of the source material on a scale of 1 to 5, as follows: 1 - poor; 2 - fair; 3 - good, useful data, but not uniformly excellent; 4 - excellent secondary data; 5 - excellent primary data Archaeologists-5

Analyst: The HRAF anthropologist who subject indexed the document and prepared other materials for the eHRAF culture/tradition collection. John Beierle; 2010

Coverage Date: The date or dates that the information in the document pertains to (often not the same as the field date). 2000 BP-600 BP (AD1-AD 1400)

Coverage Place: Location of the research culture or tradition (often a smaller unit such as a band, community, or archaeological site) Early Mogollon Period, Wind Mountain Site, New Mexico, United States

LCSH: Library of Congress Subject Headings Mimbres culture--Gila River Region (N.M. and Ariz.)//Indians of North America--Commerce--Gila River Region (N.M. and Ariz.)//Indians of North America--Gila River Region (N.M. and Ariz.)--Antiquities//Excavations (Archaeology)--Gila River Region (N.M. and Ariz.)//Wind Mountain Site (N.M.)// Gila River Region (N.M. and Ariz.)--Antiquities


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