Lekson, Stephen H.. Archaeology of the Mimbres region, Southwestern New Mexico, USA

Table of Contents

Publication Information

Chapter One Introduction

1.a. Purpose, Scope, Outline

1.b. Culture History

Paleo-indian Stage (10,000 B.c. – 7000 B.c.)

Archaic Stage (7000 B.c. – A.d. 200)

Ceramic Stage (a.d. 200 – 1500) — Mimbres District

Early Pit House Period (a.d. 200 – 550)

Late Pit House Period (a.d. 550 – 1000)

Pueblo Period — Mimbres Phase (a.d. 1000 – 1150)

Pueblo Period — Black Mountain And Cliff Phases (a.d. 1180 – 1450)

Ceramic Stage (a.d. 200 – 1500) — Reserve District

Ceramic Stage (a.d. 200 – 1500) — Jornada District

Ceramic Stage (a.d. 200 – 1500) — Southern Hidalgo District

Chapter 2 Effective Environment

2a. The Landscape

Biotic Zones

Long-term Environmental Change

Short-term Environmental Change

2b. Prehistoric Economies And Their Scales

Prehistoric Subsistence Economies


2.c. The Effective Environment Of The Mimbres

How Many Southwests?

Nuts, Berries, And Meat

Corn, Beans, And Squash

Ancient Mimbrenos, Chiricahua Apaches, And Hispanic Labradores


Chapter 3 Summary Of Previous Research

3.a. History Of Research

3.b. Cultural Resource Management Surveys

3.c. Discussion

Chapter 4 Current Thinking About Culture History

4.a. Dating And Systematics



Paleo-indian And Archaic

Late Archaic (aceramic) Pit House Sites

Early Pit House Period

Late Pit House Period

Early Pueblo Period

Late Pueblo Period

The Animas, Black Mountain, And El Paso Phases


Tularosa Phase



4.b. The Survey Record

Chronological Control

Site Size

Summaries Of Surveys By Environmental Zone

Upland Zone Surveys

Transitional Zone Surveys

Rio Grande

Black Range

Mimbres Valley

Upper Mimbres

Mimbres Valley

Rio Arenas

Gila Cliff Dwellings

Upper Gila

Upper Gila Surveys Compared

Middle San Francisco

Synthesizing Transition Zone Archaeology

Non-architectural Sites In The Transition Zone

Desert Zone Surveys

4.c. Mimbres Multicomponency, Mobility, And The Survey Record

The Constant Pit House

A Newer, Shiftier Model

Jamming Round Numbers Into Square Deals

The Meaning Of Models

Dire Conclusions

Chapter 5 Research Issues And Historic Texts

5.a. Research Issues

Paleo-indian And Archaic Stages

Late Archaic Stage And Early Pit House Period

Late Pithouse And Mimbres Research Issues


Leblanc And Others




Stuart And Gauthier



Post-mimbres Research Issues


5.b. Historic Contexts

5.c. Alternate Archaeological Strategies

National Register

Public Relations

Cultural Resource Management

Facilitating Research

Chapter 6 Strategies For Survey, Nomination, And Site Protection

6.a. Introduction

6.b. Undersurveyed Areas And Areas Subject To Development

6.c. Areas Likely To Contain National Register Sites

Working With Known Sites

Finding New Sites

6.d. Pothunting, Integrity, And The National Register

Publication Information

Paragraph Subjects (OCM)

Publication Information The main body of the Publication Information page contains all the metadata that HRAF holds for that document.

Author: Author's name as listed in Library of Congress records

Title: Archaeology of the Mimbres region, Southwestern New Mexico, USA

Published By: Original publisher Oxford: Archaeopress. 2006. xxii, 141 p. ill., maps

By line: Author's name as appearing in the actual publication Stephen H. Lekson

HRAF Publication Information: New Haven, Conn.: Human Relations Area Files, 2010. Computer File

Culture: Culture name from the Outline of World Cultures (OWC) with the alphanumberic OWC identifier in parenthesis. Mogollon (NT85)

Subjects: Document-level OCM identifiers given by the anthropology subject indexers at HRAF Culture summary (105); Diagnostic material attributes (107); Theoretical orientation in research and its results (121); Reviews and critiques (114); Acculturation and culture contact (177);

Abstract: Brief abstract written by HRAF anthropologists who have done the subject indexing for the document This document is the published version of Stephen Lekson's 'Archaeological Synthesis of Southwestern New Mexico' manuscript that was written for the New Mexico State Historic Division as part of a state plan. The plan was never published, but as copies of the unpublished version were being circulated and cited, Lekson obtained permission to publish it through BAR. As a state plan its primary purpose was to guide archaeologists working in the state of New Mexico. It presents a culture history for the area, describes the environment, summarizes previous research including which lands have been surveyed and where excavations have occurred, presents research questions (In particular, Lekson is interested in long-distance interactions and sees Mogollon as 'Mimbres was an Anasazi life style built on a Hohokam infrastructure.' (page viii).), and directs future research. Lekson directs the reader to other major works on Mimbres archaeology that have been written since his 1992 draft. This document is particularly useful for its overview of the Mogollon in southwestern New Mexico.

Document Number: HRAF's in-house numbering system derived from the processing order of documents 36

Document ID: HRAF's unique document identifier. The first part is the OWC identifier and the second part is the document number in three digits. nt85-036

Document Type: May include journal articles, essays, collections of essays, monographs or chapters/parts of monographs. Monograph

Language: Language that the document is written in English

Note: Includes bibliographical references

Field Date: The date the researcher conducted the fieldwork or archival research that produced the document no date

Evaluation: In this alphanumeric code, the first part designates the type of person writing the document, e.g. Ethnographer, Missionary, Archaeologist, Folklorist, Linguist, Indigene, and so on. The second part is a ranking done by HRAF anthropologists based on the strength of the source material on a scale of 1 to 5, as follows: 1 - poor; 2 - fair; 3 - good, useful data, but not uniformly excellent; 4 - excellent secondary data; 5 - excellent primary data Archaeologist-4

Analyst: The HRAF anthropologist who subject indexed the document and prepared other materials for the eHRAF culture/tradition collection. Sarah Berry; 2010

Coverage Date: The date or dates that the information in the document pertains to (often not the same as the field date). 1800 BP-500 BP (AD 200-AD 1500)

Coverage Place: Location of the research culture or tradition (often a smaller unit such as a band, community, or archaeological site) southwestern New Mexico, United States

LCSH: Library of Congress Subject Headings Mimbres culture//Excavations (Archaeology)--New Mexico--Mimbres River Valley Indians of North America--New Mexico--Mimbres River Valley--Antiquities//Mimbres River Valley (N.M.)--Antiquities


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