Creamer, Winifred. The Fortaleza Valley, Peru: archaeological investigation of Late Archaic sites (3000–1800 BC)

Table of Contents

Publication Information

The Fortaleza Valley, Peru: Archaeological Investigation Of Late Archaic Sites (3000–1800 Bc)




Field Methods

Site Identification And Excavation Strategy


Radiocarbon Dates: Expressing Calibrated Dates Used In This Volume

Charcoal, Radiocarbon, And Old Wood


Sector A, Profile 2

Sector A, Test Unit 3

Sectors B–e

Sector F

Profile 1, Sector F

Sector G

Sector H

Sector H, Test Unit 1 And Test Unit 2

Sector I

Porvenir Discussion


Sector A

Sector A, Test Unit 4—2004

Sector B

Sector B, Profile 1—2003

Sector B, Test Unit 1—2003

Sector B, Test Unit 2—2004

Sector C

Sector C, Profile 2—2003

Sector C, Test Unit 2—2003

Sector D

Sector D, Profile 3—2003

Sector D, Test Unit 3—2004

Sector E

Sector E, Trench 1—2003

Sector E, Test Unit 5—2004

Sector F

Sector F, Test Unit 1

Caballete Discussion

Conservation And Protection Of Caballete

Cerro Blanco 1

Sector A

Sector A, Profile 1

Sector A, Profile 2

Sector A South

Sector B

Sector B, Profile 3

Sector C

Sector C, Test Unit 1

Cerro Blanco 1 Discussion

Cerro Blanco 2

Trench 1, Main Mound

Cerro Blanco 2, Profile 1

Cerro Blanco 2 Discussion


Sector A

Sector B

Sector B, Profile 2

Sector B, Test Unit 1

Sector B, Trench 1

Sector C

Sector C, Profile 1

Sector C, Profile 3

Sector C, Test Unit 2

Huaricanga Discussion


Trench 1, Main Mound

Test Unit 1

Shaura Discussion

Discussion: Fortaleza Valley

Stratification And Radiocarbon Dates

The Late Archaic Period In The Fortaleza Valley


Publication Information

Paragraph Subjects (OCM)

Publication Information The main body of the Publication Information page contains all the metadata that HRAF holds for that document.

Author: Author's name as listed in Library of Congress records

Title: The Fortaleza Valley, Peru: archaeological investigation of Late Archaic sites (3000–1800 BC)

Published in: if part or section of a book or monograph Fieldiana Anthropology -- new series no. 44

Published By: Original publisher Fieldiana Anthropology -- new series no. 44 Chicago: Field Museum of Natural History. 2013. 1-108 p. ill.

By line: Author's name as appearing in the actual publication Winifred Creamer, Alvaro Ruiz Rubio, Manuel F. Perales Munguia, Jonathen Haas

HRAF Publication Information: New Haven, Conn.: Human Relations Area Files, 2014. Computer File

Culture: Culture name from the Outline of World Cultures (OWC) with the alphanumberic OWC identifier in parenthesis. Coastal Andean Archaic (SE40)

Subjects: Document-level OCM identifiers given by the anthropology subject indexers at HRAF Archaeological excavation methods (1210); Dating methods in archaeology (1211); Chronologies and culture sequences (911); Recording and collecting in the field (126); Public structures (344); Miscellaneous facilities (368); Cultural stratigraphy (912); Settlement patterns (361); Labor and leisure (461);

Abstract: Brief abstract written by HRAF anthropologists who have done the subject indexing for the document Test excavations were made at six sites in the Fortaleza Valley with monumental architecture, but without ceramics, in the hope of finding sites dating to the Late Archaic Period. Considerable damage has been done to the sites by looting and modern occupation. Radiocarbon dates were mainly taken from plant remains. The sites tested were occupied between 5000-3800 BP and indicate that, among the four valleys of the Norte Chico region, there was a pristine emergence of a cultural complex that included over thirty sites with monumental architecture of large mounds associated with sunken circular plazas, shicra bag construction, and, occasionally, upright stelae. The sites also had residential debris and, some include special areas for production of woven goods. The work reveals that U-shaped site layouts originated in the Late Archaic. Such sites exhibit large labor investment to build, including creating retaining walls, weaving shicras to hold and transport fill, digging circular courts, plastering walls and floors with clay, and almost continuous remodeling. The social, political, and economic relationship between the valleys of the Norte Chico region is yet to be determined, as is the contemporaneity of the various sites. The authors find no evidence that all the valleys were under political leadership centered at the site of Caral.

Document Number: HRAF's in-house numbering system derived from the processing order of documents 11

Document ID: HRAF's unique document identifier. The first part is the OWC identifier and the second part is the document number in three digits. se40-011

Document Type: May include journal articles, essays, collections of essays, monographs or chapters/parts of monographs. Journal Article

Language: Language that the document is written in English

Note: Includes bibliographical references (p. 62-64)

Field Date: The date the researcher conducted the fieldwork or archival research that produced the document 2003-2007

Evaluation: In this alphanumeric code, the first part designates the type of person writing the document, e.g. Ethnographer, Missionary, Archaeologist, Folklorist, Linguist, Indigene, and so on. The second part is a ranking done by HRAF anthropologists based on the strength of the source material on a scale of 1 to 5, as follows: 1 - poor; 2 - fair; 3 - good, useful data, but not uniformly excellent; 4 - excellent secondary data; 5 - excellent primary data Archaeologist-4,5

Analyst: The HRAF anthropologist who subject indexed the document and prepared other materials for the eHRAF culture/tradition collection. Sarah Berry; 2014

Coverage Date: The date or dates that the information in the document pertains to (often not the same as the field date). 5750-3040 BP (3750-1040 BC)

Coverage Place: Location of the research culture or tradition (often a smaller unit such as a band, community, or archaeological site) Paramonga district (Fortaleza Valley), Barranca, Lima region, Peru

LCSH: Library of Congress Subject Headings Andes Region--Antiquities


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