Terada, Kazuo, 1928-1987. Excavations at Huacaloma in the Cajamarca valley, Peru, 1979

Table of Contents

Publication Information

Chapter 1 Introduction

Huacaloma Site




Chapter 2 Stratigraphy And Constructions

Area Hl-i (27–30e; 27–29f; 27–29g) Fig. 5–19

Area Hl-ii (36–44e; 40–44f; 40–44g)

Sector Hl-iia (36–38e) Fig. 27

Sector Hl-iib (39–44e; 40–44f; 40–44g) Fig. 27–29

Area Hl-iii (46–57e)

Sector Hl-iiie (54–57e) Fig. 45

Sector Hl-iiid (52–53e) Fig. 46

Sector Hl-iiic (50–51e) Fig. 47

Sector Hl-iiib (48–49e) Fig. 48

Sector Hl-iiia (46–47e) Fig. 49

Area Hla (55–56z) Fig. 50–54

Area Hlb Fig. 55–59

Hlb 5a–e, 6a–e

Area Hlc-i (1–3a) Fig. 60

Area Hlc-ii (16–18l) Fig. 61

Chapter 3 Classification Of Pottery

General Outline

Criteria And Procedure

Description Of Pottery Types

Huacaloma Coarse Brown

Huacaloma Brown Smoothed

Huacaloma Red Smoothed

Huacaloma Red Painted

Huacaloma Line-burnished

Huacaloma Black Polished

Huacaloma Red Polished

Huacaloma Brown Polished

Huacaloma White-and-red


Huacaloma Fine-line Incised

Huacaloma Broad-line Incised

Huacaloma Zoned Post-coction Painted

Huacaloma Red-on-orange

Layzón Stamped

Layzón White

Layzón Red-on-white

Layzón Red Slipped

Cajamarca Brown Smoothed

Cajamarca Light-colored

Cajamarca Coarse Red

Cajamarca Black Painted

Cajamarca Polished

Cajamarca Kaolin Unpainted

Cajamarca Red

Cajamarca Black-and-red

Cajamarca Brown

Cajamarca Linear-painted

Cajamarca Broad Black

Cajamarca Three-colored

Cajamarca Cursive


Chapter 4 Seriated Sequence Of Pottery Types

Method Of Study And Division Of Period

Seriated Sequences Of Pottery Types

The Early Huacaloma Period

The Late Huacaloma Period

The Layzón Period

The Initial Cajamarca Period

The Early Cajamarca Period

The Middle Cajamarca Period


Chapter 5 Clay, Stone, Metal, Bone And Shell Artifacts

Clay Artifacts



The Early Huacaloma Period

The Late Huacaloma Periods

The Layzón Period

The Initial Cajamarca Period

The Early Cajamarca Period

The Middle Cajamarca Period

Chronological Observation

Stone Artifacts

Types And Nomenclature


Cores (pl. 113: 1–3)

Flakes (pl. 113: 4–11)

Point Type

Polished Points (pl. 114: 1–4)

Chipped Points (pl. 114: 5–7)

Drills (pl. 114: 8, 9)

Burin (pl. 114: 10)

Edge Type

Used Flakes (pl. 114: 11–14)

End-scraper (pl. 114: 15)

Bifacial Flake Tools (pl. 114: 16, 17)

Chipped Flakes (pl. 115: 1, 2)

Pebble Tools (pl. 56: 1–3)

Chipped Ax (pl. 115: 3)

Ground Axes (pl. 115: 4; Pl. 116: 1, 3)

T-shaped Ax (pl. 116: 2)

Hoes (pl. 116: 4–6)

Edged Slabs (pl. 116: 7, 8)

Surface Type

Hammerstones (pl. 117: 1–4)

Grooved Pebbles (pl. 117: 5, 6)

Rubbing Pebbles (pl. 118: 1–3)

Handstones (pl. 118: 4, 5; Pl. 119–121)

Flat Tabular Objects (pl. 122: 1–4)

Abraders (pl. 122: 5, 6)

Mortars (pl. 123–125; Pl. 126: 1, 2)

Vessels (pl. 126: 3–5)

Whole Type

Disk-shaped Objects (pl. 127: 1)

Spindle Whorls (pl. 127: 2–4)

Club Head (pl. 127: 5)

Miniature (pl. 127: 6)

Figurine (pl. 127: 7)

Conical Ground Object (pl. 127: 8)

Perforated Ornament (pl. 127: 9)

Relief (pl. 64: 5)

Unclassified Objects (pl. 127: 10)



Metal Artifacts

Needles (pl. 135: 5, 6)

Tupo (pl. 135: 7)

Bone And Shell Artifacts

Awls (pl. 128; Pl. 129)

Needles (pl. 130: 1–6)

Tupos (pl. 130: 7–18)

Awl-spatulas (pl. 131: 1–5)

Awls Or Spatulas (pl. 131: 5–7)

Spatulas (pl. 132)

Flat Tabular Object (pl. 68: 13)

Atlatl Hook (pl. 133: 1)

Spoons (pl. 133: 2–4)

Pendants (pl. 133: 5, 6)

Flute (pl. 133: 7)

Tube-shaped Ornaments (pl. 133: 8–12)

Unclassified Objects (pl. 134: 1–7)

Waste (pl. 134: 8, 9; Pl. 135: 1–4)

Chapter 6 Process Of The Site Formation

Area Hl-i

Description Of Levels

Level 1 (fig. 14, 63)

Level 2 (fig. 13, 63)

Level 3 (fig. 12, 63)

Level 4 (fig. 11, 63)

Level 5 (fig. 10, 63)

Level 6 (fig. 8, 9, 63)

Level 7 (fig. 7, 63)

Level 8 (fig. 6, 63)

Level 9 (fig. 5, 63)

Chronological Division

Area Hl-ii

Description Of Levels

Level 1

Level 2

Level 3

Level 4

Level 5

Level 6

Level 7

Level 8

Level 9

Level 10

Level 11

Level 12

Chronological Division

Area Hl-iii

Description Of Levels

Sector Hl-iiie (fig. 64)

Sector Hl-iiid (fig. 65)

Sector Hl-iiic (fig. 66)

Sector Hl-iiib (fig. 67)

Sector Hl-iiia (fig. 68)

Chronological Division

Early Huacaloma Period

Level 1–level 4

Level 5–level 8

Layzón Period

Level 9

Level 10

Level 11

Initial Cajamarca Period Phase A

Level 12

Level 13–level 15

Initial Cajamarca Period Phase B

Level 16–level 18

Early Cajamarca Period

Level 19

Middle Cajamarca Period

Level 20

Level 21

Process Of The Site Formation

Chapter 7 Conclusions

Periods And Culture Change At Huacaloma

The Early Huacaloma Period

(c) Constructions

(d) Artifacts And Animal Bones

The Late Huacaloma Period

(c) Constructions

(d) Artifacts, Animal And Human Bones

(e) Relationship With The Early Huacaloma Period

The Layzón Period

(c) Constructions

(d) Artifacts And Animal Bones

(e) Relationship With The Late Huacaloma Period

The Initial Cajamarca Period

(c) Constructions

(d) Artifacts

(e) Relationship With The Layzón Period

The Early Cajamarca Period

(c) Constructions

(d) Artifacts

(e) Relationship With The Initial Cajamarca Period

The Middle Cajamarca Period

(c) Constructions

(d) Artifacts

(e) Relationship With The Early Cajamarca Period

Duration Of Each Period Estimated By C-14 Dating

Huacaloma In The Andean Context

Early Prehistory Of The Cajamarca Basin Seen From Huacaloma

Publication Information

Paragraph Subjects (OCM)

Publication Information The main body of the Publication Information page contains all the metadata that HRAF holds for that document.

Author: Author's name as listed in Library of Congress records

Title: Excavations at Huacaloma in the Cajamarca valley, Peru, 1979

Published By: Original publisher Tokyo: University of Tokyo Press. 1982. xiv, 351 p., plates ill., maps

By line: Author's name as appearing in the actual publication Kazuo Terada, Yoshio Onuki

HRAF Publication Information: New Haven, Conn.: Human Relations Area Files, 2003. Computer File

Culture: Culture name from the Outline of World Cultures (OWC) with the alphanumberic OWC identifier in parenthesis. Highland Andean Formative (SE48)

Subjects: Document-level OCM identifiers given by the anthropology subject indexers at HRAF Archaeological excavation methods (1210); Ceramic technology (323); Structures (340); General tools (412); Utensils (415); Visual arts (5311); Cultural stratigraphy (912);

Abstract: Brief abstract written by HRAF anthropologists who have done the subject indexing for the document Terada and Onuki report on their excavations and findings from the site of Huacaloma in Peru. The site was occupied from the Early Huacaloma through the Middle Cajamarca Periods. How they excavated and the levels and stratigraphy they found are reported in great detail along with the architecture and the artifacts. The report contains numerous drawings and photographs of the stratigraphy, the excavation levels, the walls found within the excavation levels, the ceramics, and the other artifacts. A detailed ceramic typology is presented. Although, the architecture that was found during the excavations was not given a function, most were probably part of either a public or religious structure. Only the data that pertains to the Early Huacaloma, Late Huacaloma, and Lazón Periods were indexed for OCM (Outline of Cultural Materials ) codes. The reader should use caution when examining the plates as artifacts or architecture from several time periods may be shown on a plate.

Document Number: HRAF's in-house numbering system derived from the processing order of documents 5

Document ID: HRAF's unique document identifier. The first part is the OWC identifier and the second part is the document number in three digits. se48-005

Document Type: May include journal articles, essays, collections of essays, monographs or chapters/parts of monographs. Collection

Language: Language that the document is written in English

Note: Includes bibliographical references (p. 319-320) and index

Field Date: The date the researcher conducted the fieldwork or archival research that produced the document Aug 1978 and June-September 1979

Evaluation: In this alphanumeric code, the first part designates the type of person writing the document, e.g. Ethnographer, Missionary, Archaeologist, Folklorist, Linguist, Indigene, and so on. The second part is a ranking done by HRAF anthropologists based on the strength of the source material on a scale of 1 to 5, as follows: 1 - poor; 2 - fair; 3 - good, useful data, but not uniformly excellent; 4 - excellent secondary data; 5 - excellent primary data Archaeologist-4, 5

Analyst: The HRAF anthropologist who subject indexed the document and prepared other materials for the eHRAF culture/tradition collection. Sarah Berry ; 2002

Coverage Date: The date or dates that the information in the document pertains to (often not the same as the field date). Early Huacaloma through Layzón Periods or 3500 BP-2200 BP (1500 B.C.-200 B.C.)

Coverage Place: Location of the research culture or tradition (often a smaller unit such as a band, community, or archaeological site) site of Huacaloma; Peru

LCSH: Library of Congress Subject Headings Indians of South America--Andes--Antiquities


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