Terada, Kazuo, 1928-1987. The formative period in the Cajamarca Basin, Peru: excavations at Huacaloma and Layzon, 1982

Table of Contents

Publication Information

Part I Excavations At Huacaloma

Chapter 1 Excavations



Chapter 2 Stratigraphy And Constructions

Area Hl-iv

The Late Huacaloma Period Figs. 5–11; Pls. 1–4

The El Phase Figs. 12–13; Pl. 5d, E, F

The Layzón Period Figs. 14–17; Pl. 5a, B, C; Pls. 6–7

The Early Cajamarca Period Figs. 18–20; Pls. 8–9

Area Hl-va

The Early Huacaloma Period Fig. 22

The Late Huacaloma Period Fig. 22

The El Phase Fig. 23

The Layzón Period Figs. 24–25; Pl. 18d

The Early Cajamarca Period (figs. 21, 25)

Area Hl-vb

The Early Huacaloma Period

Phase 1 (figs. 30–31; Pl. 10)

Phase 2 (figs. 30, 32–35; Pls. 11–12)

The Late Huacaloma Period Figs. 36–39; Pl. 6

The El Phase Fig. 40

The Layzón Period Figs. 41–43

The Initial Cajamarca Period Figs. 44–48; Pl. 14a

The Early Cajamarca Period Figs. 49–58; Pl. 14b, C; Pls. 15–16; Pl. 17a, B

Phase 1 (fig. 54)

Phase 2 (figs. 55–56; Pl. 15e, F; Pl. 18c)

Phase 3 (fig. 57; Pls. 16–17)

Phase 4 (fig. 58; Pl. 17a, B)

The Middle Cajamarca Period (fig. 59; Pl. 18c)

Chapter 3 Artifacts


Classification Of Pottery

Description Of Pottery Types

Huacaloma Coarse Brown

Huacaloma Brown Smoothed

Huacaloma Red Smoothed

Huacaloma Red Painted

Huacaloma Line-burnished

Huacaloma Black Polished

Huacaloma Red Polished

Huacaloma Brown Polished

Huacaloma White

Huacaloma White-and-red

Huacaloma Fine-line Incised

Huacaloma Broad-line Incised

Huacaloma Zoned Post-coction Painted

Huacaloma Red-on-orange

Layzón Stamped

Layzón Plain

Layzón White

Layzón Red-on-white

Layzón Red Slipped

Layzón Incised

Layzón Shallow Incised

Layzón Brushed


Seriated Sequence Of Pottery Types

The Early Huacaloma Period

The Late Huacaloma Period

The El Phase

The Layzón Period

Clay Artifacts



The Early Huacaloma Period

Secondary Artifacts

The Late Huacaloma Period

Primary Artifacts

Secondary Artifacts

The El Phase

Primary Artifacts

Secondary Artifacts

The Layzón Period

Primary Artifacts

Secondary Artifacts

Miscellaneous Object (pl. 36: 27; Pl. 76: 20)

Chronological Observations


Other Primary Artifacts

Secondary Artifacts

Stone Artifacts



Point Types

Edge Types

Surface Types

Whole Types

The Early Huacaloma Period Pl. 37: 1–4

The Late Huacaloma Period Pl. 37: 5–14; Pls. 38–39; Pls. 77–80

The El Phase Pls. 40–43; Pls. 81–83

The Layzón Period Pls. 44–46; Pls. 84–89

Bone And Shell Artifacts



Point Types

Edge Types

Surface Types

Whole Types

The Late Huacaloma Period Pls. 47–48; Pls. 94–98

The El Phase Pl. 49; Pls. 99–100

The Layzón Period Pls. 50–51; Pls. 101–104

Stone, Metal And Bone Artifacts Of The Cajamarca Periods

Stone Artifacts

The Initial Cajamarca Period (pl. 90)

The Early Cajamarca Period (pls. 91–92)

The Middle Cajamarca Period (pl. 93)

Metal Artifacts Pl. 52: 10–13; Pl. 107: 8–11

Bone Artifacts

The Initial Cajamarca Period (pl. 52: 1, 6–9; Pl. 105: 1–9)

The Early Cajamarca Period (pl. 52: 2, 5; Pl. 105: 10, 11; Pl. 106)

The Middle Cajamarca Period (pl. 52: 3, 4; Pl. 107: 1–7)

Chapter 4 Summary

The Early Huacaloma Period

The Late Huacaloma Period

The El Phase

The Layzón Period

C-14 Dating

The Early Huacaloma Period

The Late Huacaloma Period

The El Phase

The Layzón Period

Part Ii Excavations At Layzón

Chapter 1 Layzon Site

Chapter 2 Excavations

Chapter 3 Stratigraphy And Constructions

The First Platform (pla-1)

The Main Structure, Str-l01

The Quadrangular Platform-like Structure, Str-l11

Walls Between Pla-1 And Pla-2

Pla-h1 And Pla-l1

The Second Platform (pla-2)

The Circular Platform-like Structure, Str-l21, And Other Constructions On The Northwest Of Pla-2

The Circular Platform-like Structure, Str-l23, And Other Constructions On The Southwest Of Pla-2

Walls And Other Constructions Between Pla-2 And Pla-3

Pla-h2 And Pla-l2

The Third Platform (pla-3)

Constructions On Pla-3

Pla-h3 And Pla-l3

The Fourth Platform (pla-4)

Constructions On Pla-4


The Fifth Platform (pla-5)

Constructions On Pla-5


The Sixth Platform (pla-6)

Constructions On Pla-6


Other Constructions

The Western Slope: Stone Sculptures

The East And The North

Chapter 4 Chronological Considerations

Architectural Features


Pottery And Other Artifacts

A Synthetic View

Description Of Artifacts

The Late Huacaloma Period


Huacaloma Brown Smoothed (pl. 129: 7; Pl. 137: 8)

Huacaloma Red Smoothed (pl. 129: 1–6, 8, 9, 11–19; Pl. 137: 1–7, 10–19)

Huacaloma Line-burnished (subtype B) (pl. 129: 21; Pl. 137: 20)

Huacaloma Brown Polished (pl. 129: 10, 20; Pl. 137: 9, 21)

Huacaloma Zoned Post-coction Painted (subtype A) (pl. 129: 22–27; Pl. 137: 22–25)

Clay Artifacts

Stone Artifact

The Layzón Period


Huacaloma Brown Smoothed (pl. 130b: 1–7; Pl. 138: 1–6)

Huacaloma Line-burnished (subtype A) (pl. 130c: 1–6; Pl. 138: 7–12)

Huacaloma Red-on-orange (pl. 130a; Pl. 138: 13)

Layzón Stamped (pl. 130d: 1–6; Pl. 130e; Pl. 138: 14–18)

Layzón Plain (pl. 131a: 1–5; Pl. 139: 1–5)

Layzón White (pl. 131b: 1–4; Pl. 139: 6–9)

Layzón Red-on-white (pl. 131c: 1–10; Pl. 132a: 1–5; Pl. 139: 10–18; Pl. 140: 1–6)

Layzón Red Slipped (pl. 132b; 132c: 1–4; 132d; Pl. 140: 7–12)

Unclassified (pl. 132e–g; Pl. 140: 13–15)

Clay Artifacts

Stone Artifacts

Bone And Shell Artifacts

Metal Artifact

Chapter 5 Summary

Publication Information

Paragraph Subjects (OCM)

Publication Information The main body of the Publication Information page contains all the metadata that HRAF holds for that document.

Author: Author's name as listed in Library of Congress records

Title: The formative period in the Cajamarca Basin, Peru: excavations at Huacaloma and Layzon, 1982

Published By: Original publisher [Tokyo]: University of Tokyo Press. 1985. xxii, 345 p., plates ill., maps

By line: Author's name as appearing in the actual publication Kazuo Terada, Yoshio Onuki

HRAF Publication Information: New Haven, Conn.: Human Relations Area Files, 2003. Computer File

Culture: Culture name from the Outline of World Cultures (OWC) with the alphanumberic OWC identifier in parenthesis. Highland Andean Formative (SE48)

Subjects: Document-level OCM identifiers given by the anthropology subject indexers at HRAF Ceramic technology (323); Masonry (333); Religious and educational structures (346); Visual arts (5311);

Abstract: Brief abstract written by HRAF anthropologists who have done the subject indexing for the document Terada and Onuki report on their excavations and findings from the sites of Huacaloma and Layzón in Peru. The Huacaloma site was occupied from the Early Huacaloma through the Middle Cajamarca Periods and the Layzoón site was mostly occupied from the Late Huacaloma through the Layzón Periods. How they excavated and the levels and the stratigraphy they found are reported in great detail along with the architecture and the artifacts. Also described are the human remains found and the pollen and faunal remains collected. The report contains numerous drawings and photographs of the excavation levels, the constructions found within the excavation levels such as walls, platforms, and staircases, the ceramics, and the other artifacts. Most of the architecture described was part of a temple mound or platform although the authors do not refer to it as such until the conclusions. Only the data that pertains to the Early Huacaloma, Late Huacaloma, and Layzón Periods (or 3500 B.P. to 2200 B.P.) were marked for OCM (Outline of Cultural Materials ) codes.

Document Number: HRAF's in-house numbering system derived from the processing order of documents 6

Document ID: HRAF's unique document identifier. The first part is the OWC identifier and the second part is the document number in three digits. se48-006

Document Type: May include journal articles, essays, collections of essays, monographs or chapters/parts of monographs. Collection

Language: Language that the document is written in English

Note: Includes bibliographical references (p. 274-275)

Field Date: The date the researcher conducted the fieldwork or archival research that produced the document 1982

Evaluation: In this alphanumeric code, the first part designates the type of person writing the document, e.g. Ethnographer, Missionary, Archaeologist, Folklorist, Linguist, Indigene, and so on. The second part is a ranking done by HRAF anthropologists based on the strength of the source material on a scale of 1 to 5, as follows: 1 - poor; 2 - fair; 3 - good, useful data, but not uniformly excellent; 4 - excellent secondary data; 5 - excellent primary data Archaeologist-4, 5

Analyst: The HRAF anthropologist who subject indexed the document and prepared other materials for the eHRAF culture/tradition collection. Sarah Berry ; 2002

Coverage Date: The date or dates that the information in the document pertains to (often not the same as the field date). Early Huacaloma period through Layzón Period

Coverage Place: Location of the research culture or tradition (often a smaller unit such as a band, community, or archaeological site) Huacaloma and Layzón sites; Cajamarca Valley Peru

LCSH: Library of Congress Subject Headings Indians of South America--Andes--Antiquities


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