Collection Description

Tradition Name

Eastern European Mesolithic

Tradition Description

The Eastern European Mesolithic tradition is located between the Carpathian and Ural mountains, and the Arctic Ocean to the Black Sea (largely European Russia and Ukraine), from 11000–6500 BP. The tradition ends with the introduction of ceramics and the beginning of the Neolithic. People were nomadic hunter-gatherers and fishers using microlithic tools, although antler, bone, and wood tools have also been found. Known settlements are near lakes and rivers. Approximately ten percent of males died violently, evidence that conflict was commonplace.


Select the Tradition Summary link above for a longer description of the culture.


Europe --Eastern Europe











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Collection Overview

Documents referred to in this section are included in the eHRAF Archaeology collection and are referenced by author, date of publication, and title where necessary.

The Eastern European Mesolithic tradition is located between the Carpathian Mountains and the Ural Mountains and from the Arctic Ocean to the Black Sea. It occurred from 11,000 to 6500 BP.

Zalizniak (1997) and Dolukhanov and Khotinskiĭ (1984) provide overviews of the tradition. Vegetation and climate are explored in Khotinskiĭ (1984) and by Savina and Khotinskiĭ (1984), respectively. Oshibkina (1989) describes the sites found in the Lake Onega region, one of which was a peatbog site providing excellent preservation of bone and wood artifacts

For more detailed information on the content of the individual works in this collection see the abstracts in the citations preceding each document.

Overview by

Sarah Berry

Choom – surface birch bark dwelling – use DWELLINGS (342)

Hand sledge – see Kerezhka

Holomo – dwelling covered with earth – use DWELLINGS (342)

Kerezhka – one runner sledge – use VEHICLES (493) or WEIGHT MOVING (483)

Kremenitsa – lithic concentration that may indicate where a dwelling once stood – use CULTURAL STRATIGRAPHY (912)

Kuvaksa – summer dwelling – use DWELLINGS (342)

Ponyaga – container strapped across the shoulders for carrying burdens – use UTENSILS (415) or WEIGHT MOVING (483)

Summer dwelling – see Kuvaksa

Vezha – winter dwelling – use DWELLINGS (342)

Winter dwelling – see Vezha

Indexing Notes by

Sarah Berry

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