Citing subject codes

If you have used HRAF’s subject-indexing system in an Advanced Search, we suggest identifying the Subject Description and the OCM identifier from the Outline of Cultural Materials (OCM).



Ember, Carol R., and Melvin Ember. 2005. Explaining Corporal Punishment of Children: A Cross‐Cultural Study. American Anthropologist 107(4): 609-619.

Gray, Peter B., and Sharon M. Young. 2011. Human–Pet Dynamics in Cross-Cultural Perspective. Anthrozoos: A Multidisciplinary Journal of The Interactions of People & Animals 24(1): 17-30.

Murdock, George P., Clellan S. Ford, Alfred E. Hudson, Raymond Kennedy, Leo W. Simmons, John W. M. Whiting. 2008. Outline of Cultural Materials. 6th revised edition with modifications. New Haven: Human Relations Area Files.

Murdock, George P., and Douglas R. White. 1969. Standard cross-cultural sample. Ethnology. 329-369.

White, Douglas R. 1989. Focused ethnographic bibliography: Standard cross-cultural sample. Cross-Cultural Research 23(1-4): 1-145.