Rudenko, S. I. (Sergei Ivanovich), 1885-1969. Frozen tombs of Siberia: the Pazyryk burials of Iron Age horsemen

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Publication Information The main body of the Publication Information page contains all the metadata that HRAF holds for that document.

Author: Author's name as listed in Library of Congress records

Title: Frozen tombs of Siberia: the Pazyryk burials of Iron Age horsemen

Published By: Original publisher Berkeley: University of California Press. 1970. xxxvi, 340, [144] p. ill.

By line: Author's name as appearing in the actual publication by Sergei I. Rudenko. Translated and with a pref. by M. W. Thompson

HRAF Publication Information: New Haven, Conn.: Human Relations Area Files, 2002. Computer File

Culture: Culture name from the Outline of World Cultures (OWC) with the alphanumberic OWC identifier in parenthesis. Early Nomad (RL60)

Subjects: Document-level OCM identifiers given by the anthropology subject indexers at HRAF Domesticated animals (231); Work in skins (281); Felted and other non-interworked fabrics (287); Normal garb (291); Special garments (292); Bone, horn, and shell technology (321); Woodworking (322); Metallurgy (325); General tools (412); Animal transport (492); Vehicles (493); Visual arts (5311); Burial practices and funerals (764); Ethnozoology (825);

Abstract: Brief abstract written by HRAF anthropologists who have done the subject indexing for the document Rudenko excavated these frozen tombs near Pazyryk, Russia and he discusses many details of their construction and their contents. Although the tombs had been extensively looted in antiquity, many artifacts made of fragile materials (such as wood, fabric, and leather) were preserved. In addition, the artifacts associated with the horses and the horses themselves, which were buried just outside the tombs, had not been looted and were found intact. Therefore, many of the artifacts discussed in this book are equipment associated with the horses. Also found were embalmed bodies, one with tatoos. Clothing was found with the bodies, although it is unclear which if any of the clothes would have been considered everyday wear. Rudenko proposes that the tomb construction would have been similar to their winter dwellings, including furnishings (such as hanging carpets on the walls or placing them on the floors and the use of small tables). One of the remarkable traits of the Early Nomads is their art work and many if not most of the items found in these tombs were decorated. Rudenko estimated the maximum and minimum ages for the site were 520 B.C. to 212 B.C.

Document Number: HRAF's in-house numbering system derived from the processing order of documents 2

Document ID: HRAF's unique document identifier. The first part is the OWC identifier and the second part is the document number in three digits. rl60-002

Document Type: May include journal articles, essays, collections of essays, monographs or chapters/parts of monographs. Monograph

Language: Language that the document is written in English

Note: Translation of: [Kul'tura naseleniia Gornogo Altaia v skifskoe vremia]|Illustrations: [144] p. at end Includes bibliographical references (p. 329-332)

Field Date: The date the researcher conducted the fieldwork or archival research that produced the document 1924, 1929, and 1947-1949

Evaluation: In this alphanumeric code, the first part designates the type of person writing the document, e.g. Ethnographer, Missionary, Archaeologist, Folklorist, Linguist, Indigene, and so on. The second part is a ranking done by HRAF anthropologists based on the strength of the source material on a scale of 1 to 5, as follows: 1 - poor; 2 - fair; 3 - good, useful data, but not uniformly excellent; 4 - excellent secondary data; 5 - excellent primary data Archaeologist-4, 5

Analyst: The HRAF anthropologist who subject indexed the document and prepared other materials for the eHRAF culture/tradition collection. Sarah Berry ; 2000

Coverage Date: The date or dates that the information in the document pertains to (often not the same as the field date). 2520 BP-2212 BP (520 B.C.-212 B.C.)

Coverage Place: Location of the research culture or tradition (often a smaller unit such as a band, community, or archaeological site) Pazyryk site; Pazyryk, Russia

LCSH: Library of Congress Subject Headings Asia, Central--Antiquities

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