Viewing a Document

Each document in eHRAF contains a Publication Information page. Whether beginning at the Publication Information page, or entering a full context page from your search results, you can navigate the available text of a document using the sidebar on the right-hand side of the page. The main content (paragraphs) of the page will always be in the central area, both for the Publication Information page and for pages of text throughout the database.

There are three ways to navigate a document using the right sidebar:

  • Previous and Next Buttons: Located at the top of the sidebar, these buttons take you to the next or previous page of text. Note that clicking the Next button on the Publication Information page will take you to the first page of the document

  • Page Dropdown: This dropdown will take you to a specific numbered or unnumbered page of the text, as well as the Publication Information page.

  • Page Focus: This contains the original document page number as well as time and place metadata (culture name, region, sub-region, field date, coverage date, and place coverage), as well as active section titles.

  • Table of Contents: The table of contents organizes the document into four parts: Publication Information, Front Matter, Body, and Back Matter. Each section lists the document parts as named in the original publication, using section headers, chapter names and page numbers accordingly.

To get a citation for a document, click the format_quote Cite button in the right sidebar. For more details about citations, see Citing eHRAF.

To print a single page of the document or the Publication Information page, click the print Print button in the right sidebar or use your browser’s print feature.

Publication Information

The publication information page contains various descriptive information about the document, including the original publication information, the abstract, and the OCM subjects HRAF analysts applied to the document, as well as the tradition, region, date, and other relevant topics covered by the document. In other words, the Publication Information page lists the metadata for the document.

These are the metadata fields on the page:


Brief abstract written by HRAF anthropologists who have done the subject indexing for the document


Document-level OCM identifiers given by the anthropology subject indexers at HRAF


Tradition name from the Outline of World Cultures (OWC)

HRAF PubDate

The date HRAF published the document


The area the document pertains to

Sub Region

The more specific area the document pertains to, which is located within the Region

Document ID

HRAF’s unique document identifier. The first part is the OWC identifier and the second part is the document number in three digits.

Document Type

May include journal articles, essays, collections of essays, monographs, or chapters/parts of monographs


In this alphanumeric code, the first part designates the type of person writing the document, e.g. Ethnographer, Missionary, Archaeologist, Folklorist, Linguist, Indigene, and so on. The second part is a ranking done by HRAF anthropologists based on the strength of the source material on a scale of 1 to 5, as follows: 1 - poor; 2 - fair; 3 - good, useful data, but not uniformly excellent; 4 - excellent secondary data; 5 - excellent primary data.


The HRAF anthropologist who subject indexed the document and prepared other materials for the eHRAF tradition collection

Coverage Date

The date or dates that the information in the document pertains to

Coverage Place

Location of the research tradition (often a smaller unit such as a band, community, or archaeological site)’>{pubInfo.coverage_place}


Additional notes


Library of Congress Control Number


International Standard Book Number


Library of Congress Subject Headings

Browsing Document Text


In accordance with the eHRAF terms and conditions, any authorized user may view all relevant paragraph results of their searches as displayed on the search results page(s). However, full context page views are more limited in scope.

Consistent with fair use provisions, it is usually not possible to view every page of an entire document in eHRAF if the work is protected under copyright. Users can view the entirety of documents that are in the public domain (such as works published prior to 1928 or US government publications) or documents originally published by HRAF. Should a user wish to read the entirety of a single work or download entire documents, they are advised to contact their institution’s library for their holdings and/or use inter-library loan.

Note that eHRAF is not an eBook host and does not offer PDF downloads of documents.

While most parts of the document appear as text, certain parts, particularly front and back portions, might appear as image scans.

The eHRAF database is organized around paragraphs. Thus, each paragraph on a full context page will have a dropdown shadow appear when the mouse cursor hovers over it. To the left of the paragraph text is the playlist_add Add to Notebook icon, which you can click to add the paragraph to either an existing Notebook or a new Notebook.

To the right of the paragraph text is the list of OCM subjects HRAF analysts have applied to the specific paragraph. Click on the subject identifier to open a sidebar with a profile about the subject.

Full Context pages also display additional metadata in the Page Focus, which contains time and place data, in the sidebar on the right.