Citing the sample used

You can reference samples used for your findings as supported by data in eHRAF with in-text as well as bibliographic citations.


  • “The sample for this research was the Probability Sample Files*, a 60-culture subset of eHRAF World Cultures”. (Or, if you used the paper/fiche versions “a subset of the HRAF Collection of Ethnography.”)

  • The starting sample for our research was eHRAF World Cultures ( online as of [Month Day Year]. We used all the societies that the HRAF staff coded as “hunter-gatherers” defined as societies that “depend almost entirely (86% or more) on hunting, fishing, and gathering for subsistence” (see Subsistence Types in eHRAF)”

  • “The sample of archaeological traditions was drawn from eHRAF Archaeology ( online as of [Month Date Year]. eHRAF Archaeology contains both a random sample of archaeological traditions and a selection of tradition sequences drawn from the Outline of Archaeological Traditions (Peregrine n.d.) We used the random sample of archaeological traditions for part 1 of our study; Table 1 lists the eHRAF archaeological tradition names in column 1, the time period in column 2, and the overall subsistence pattern coded by the HRAF staff in column 3.”

See Sampling in eHRAF for more information.


Peregrine, Peter N. n.d. Outline of archaeological traditions. New Haven, CT: Human Relations Area Files.